Atonement, Part 6

This is a continuation of the previous essay which was a continuation of a consideration of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  I’ll begin with a review:

Atonement, Part 2

Now this is what you are to do for them to consecrate (qâdash, לקדש; Septuagint: ἁγιάσαι, another form of ἁγιάζω) them so that they may minister as my priests.[3]  This same word לקדש (qâdash) was translated to set them apart in Exodus 29:33 (NET) above, and ἁγιάσαι in the Septuagint.  In 1 Thessalonians 5:23 ἁγιάσαι was translated makeholy (NET) or sanctify (KJV).  There is an overview of what was required for this consecration, to set Aaron and his sons apart (Exodus 29:1b-3).

Atonement, Part 3

The Hebrew word translated to consecrate in Exodus 29:33 above was למלא (mâlêʼ).  In the Septuagint למלא (mâlêʼ) was translated τελειῶσαι τὰς χεῖρας, “validate their hands” in an English translation of the Septuagint (NETS).  And τελειῶσαι (a form of τελειόω) was translated to perfect in: For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship.[4]  Thus you are to consecrate (mâlêʼ, ומלאת; Septuagint: τελειώσεις τὰς χεῖρας; NETS: “validate their hands”) Aaron and his sons,[5] yehôvâh told Moses.  The ritual is recounted in a table of Exodus 29:4-9 and Leviticus 8:6-13.

Atonement, Part 4

The ritual of the sin offering (chaṭṭâʼâh, החטאת; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία) bull is recounted in a table of Exodus 29:10-14 and Leviticus 8:14-17.  The sin offering bull was eaten by no one.  The Hebrew word translated holy in for they are holy in Exodus 29:33 above was קדש (qôdesh).  In the Septuagint קדש (qôdesh) was translated ἅγια (a form of ἅγιος).  Tracking ἅγια into the New Testament led to the sin offering accomplished in heaven by Jesus the Christ, the high priest of the new covenant: Hebrews 9:11, 12, 24-28.

Atonement, Part 5

The ritual of the burnt offering (ʽôlâh, העלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαύτωμα) ram is recounted in a table of Exodus 29:15-18 and Leviticus 8:18-21.  The burnt offering ram was eaten by no one.  This led to a discussion between Jesus and one of the experts in the law (γραμματέων, a form of γραμματεύς) on the relative merits of burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτωμάτων, a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα), recounted in a table of Mark 12:28-34a.

The other occurrences of a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα in the New Testament are found in Hebrews 10:4-9 (NET):

For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins.  So when he came into the world, he said,

Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

Whole burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτώματα, another form of ὁλοκαύτωμα) and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

Then I said, Here I am: I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’”

When he says above, “Sacrifices[6] and offerings[7] and whole burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτώματα, another form of ὁλοκαύτωμα) and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” (which are offered according to the law), then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.”[8]  He does away with the first to establish the second.

The words highlighted in boldface were a quotation from, or an allusion to, Psalm 40:6-8.  Below are three examples of Psalm 40:6-8 translated from contemporary Hebrew.

Psalm 40:6-8 (Tanakh) Psalm 40:6-8 (KJV)

Psalm 40:6-8 (NET)

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened (kârâh, כרית): burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. Receiving sacrifices and offerings are not your primary concern.  You make that quite clear to me!  You do not ask for burnt sacrifices and sin offerings.
Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, Then I say, “Look!  I come!  What is written in the scroll pertains to me.
I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart. I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart. I want to do what pleases you, my God. Your law dominates my thoughts.”

Since the oldest extant Hebrew manuscript of the Old Testament dates from 920 – 930 and the oldest extant manuscript of the book of Hebrews in Greek dates from 175 – 225, it seems obvious that the Masoretes[9] transformed a prophecy about a body prepared for Christ into a clever insult about digging wax out of David’s ears.  The problem with that, however, is the Septuagint.  Well, it doesn’t have to be a problem, I suppose, not if I switch versions.

Hebrews 10:5b-7 (NET Parallel Greek)

Psalm 39:7-9a (Septuagint Elpenor)

θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι· ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ἐζήτησας
ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ εὐδόκησας
τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ, τοῦ ποιῆσαι ὁ θεὸς τὸ θέλημα σου τότε εἶπον· ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ
τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου, ὁ Θεός μου

Here, both the NET parallel Greek and the Septuagint agree on the word σῶμα (body).  But the oldest extant manuscripts of the Septuagint date from 350 – 450.  So, did the rabbis read a Hebrew word and translate it σῶμα or did believers prefer σῶμα and substitute it?  In one sense I have no objection to preferring the book of Hebrews and by faith, as it were, assuming σῶμα.  But that is exactly what I’ve accused the Masoretes of doing to the Hebrew text:[10]

…raised from infancy with the belief that Jesus was not, could not possibly be, the promised Messiah, and with no knowledge of deliberate textual corruptions, the Masoretes could have done this[11] [i.e., added vowel points] in good conscience.

The Blue Letter Bible version of the Septuagint I have been using (which agrees here with the Academic Bible [See Table1 below]) compares to the NET parallel Greek as follows:

Hebrews 10:5b-7 (NET Parallel Greek)

Psalm 40:6, 7, 8a (Septuagint BLB)

θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας ὠτία δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι ὁλοκαύτωμα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ᾔτησας
ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ εὐδόκησας
τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ, τοῦ ποιῆσαι ὁ θεὸς τὸ θέλημα σου τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ
τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου ὁ θεός μου

In this version the ears (ὠτία) were there already but the “digging” (kârâh, כרית) had become κατηρτίσω (you prepared).  I found an alternative explanation online at Michael S. Heiser.com in an article titled “The Function of Paronomasia in Hebrews 10:5–7” by Karen H. Jobes.

At first the philosophical bent of my mind clashed with her poetic soul.  Her idea that some anonymous author changed ὠτία (ears) to σῶμα (body) because it sounded better to first century ears was appalling.  But I softened some as she explained the meaning of this rhetorical technique in this particular context.

The most striking feature of this quotation from Psalm 40 is that it is attributed (improperly some would say) to the incarnate Jesus Christ: “Therefore, when Christ came into the world, he said … ”  It is as if Psalm 40 had never previously existed; as if these words originated in Christ’s mouth and not in the psalmist’s, some thousand years before.

The belief that all scripture is unified by divine inspiration could be used to explain this attribution.  For whatever David said in Psalms was really being said by God.  And because of the triune relationship of the God-head, whatever God says, Christ says.[12]

My own working hypothesis is that yehôvâh became Jesus: Now [yehôvâh] became flesh and took up residence among us.  We saw his glory – the glory of the one and only, full of grace and truth, who came from the Father.[13]  No one has ever seen God (e.g., the Father).[14]  And HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth (Numbers 12:5-8 Tanakh).

And He said: ‘Hear now My words: if there be a prophet among you, I HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) do make Myself known unto him in a vision (marʼâh, במראה; Septuagint: ὁράματι, a form of ὅραμα), I do speak with him in a dream (chălôm, בחלום; Septuagint: ὕπνῳ, a form of ὕπνος).  My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house; with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly (marʼeh, ומראה; Septuagint: εἴδει, a form of εἶδος), and not in dark speeches; and the similitude (temûnâh, ותמנת; Septuagint: δόξαν, a form of δόξα) of HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’

The only one,[15] himself God,[16] who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known[17] (e.g., in both Old and New Testaments).  He [yehôvâh] came to what was his own, but his own people did not receive him.[18]  For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance[19] be but life from the dead?  If the first portion of the dough offered is holy (ἁγία, a form of ἅγιος), then the whole batch is holy, and if the root is holy (ἁγία, a form of ἅγιος), so too are the branches.[20]  Ms. Jobes continued:

In Hebrews 10, then, the author’s lexical choice in substituting εὐδόκησας for ᾔτησας not only achieves phonetic assonance, but also fits well with the argument made in that chapter.  Sacrifice and offering were not God’s will, burnt offering and sin offering were not God’s good pleasure.  Though God had commanded them when in the past he “spoke to our forefathers through the prophets,” these were not the means through which God would redeem his people from sin.  The past-speaking of the old sacrificial system is superseded when God’s redemptive plan is revealed in Christ.

The clause containing substitutions of σω̂μα for ὠτία and the plural ὁλοκαυτώματα for the singular form is sandwiched between the inclusio formed by ἠθέλησας and εὐδόκησας in an a-b-b’-a’ pattern…

What is the point of these contrasted clauses?  According to the MT, David had “ears” to hear the word of the Lord.  The midrash of Ps 40:7 understands this verse in light of 1 Sam 15:22, “Hath the Lord as great delight in burnt-offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord?” (the verb is שׁמע, “hearing”).  The reference to David’s ears, which heard the voice of the Lord, is therefore to be understood as referring to David’s obedience to God.

W. C. Kaiser follows this midrashic understanding and also construes this idiom as referring to David’s—somewhat faltering—obedience.  Kaiser sees the substitution of σω̂μα for ὠτία as simply the whole being substituted for the part by the Greek translator in order to produce a culturally dynamic equivalent.  This would then mean that David and Christ were saying essentially the same thing.  But Christ’s obedience to God that abolished the old cultic sacrifices was not the same as David’s obedience to God as theocratic king.  It was not that Jesus lived his life in perfect obedience to God, but more specifically, it was the obedient sacrifice of his body in death that brought an end to animal sacrifice.  As the king of Israel, David could only imperfectly obey God, and his body could never be the once-for-all sacrifice for sin.  Therefore, it was uniquely appropriate for the author of Hebrews to substitute σω̂μα for ὠτία when he also put the words of Ps 40:6–8 in Christ’s mouth.

So when he came into the world, he said… may not be mystic poetry but straightforward reportage.  My own working hypothesis is that Hebrews was Jesus’ teaching between his resurrection and ascension, the teaching that caused Cleopas and his companion to exclaim, “Didn’t our hearts burn within us[21] while he was speaking with us on the road,[22] while he was explaining the scriptures to us?”[23]  I think it is entirely possible that the writer’s informants heard the resurrected Jesus explain this prophecy in exactly this way, and that his teaching was written down some time before Stephen was killed.  Ms. Jobes continued:

The displeasure of God with cultic offerings is contrasted with, “But a body you prepared for me.”  The argument of Hebrews 10 is that it was Jesus Christ’s body which was the sacrifice well-pleasing to God, not the many animal sacrifices endlessly repeated.  The lexical choice of σω̂μα δέ concurrently with the substitution of the plural form of ὁλοκαυτώματα achieves phonetic assonance and by this marked prominence the one body of Christ is contrasted with the many burnt offerings with which God was not pleased.  The rhetorical construction of paronomasia therefore reinforces the point of the argument made in Hebrews 10.

Regarding Hebrews as the teaching of the resurrected Christ, it matters less to me whether He quoted a lost manuscript of Psalm 40 or changed ὠτία (ears) to σῶμα (body) for his own teaching purposes.  Either way He has my attention focused on σῶμα.  Paul equated our old [human] (ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος) with the body of sin (τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας): We know that our old man was crucified with him so that the body of sin would no longer dominate us, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin.[24]

And you were at one time strangers and enemies in your minds as expressed through your evil deeds, Paul wrote believers in Colossae, but now he has reconciled you by his physical body (ἐν τῷ σώματι τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ; literally, “in the body of his flesh”) through death to present you holy, without blemish, and blameless before him – if indeed you remain in the faith, established and firm, without shifting from the hope of the gospel that you heard.[25]

But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of[26] sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness.  Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus[27] from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ[28] from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit[29] who lives[30] in you.[31]

The body of the old human does not exhaust the meaning of the body God the Father prepared for Jesus the Christ (Philippians 3:20, 21; 1 Corinthians 15:50-53; Ephesians 1:23 NET):

But our citizenship (πολίτευμα) is in heaven – and we also await a savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform these humble (ταπεινώσεως, a form of ταπείνωσις) bodies (σῶμα) of ours[32] into the likeness of his glorious body (σώματι, a form of σῶμα) by means of that power by which he is able to subject all things to himself.[33]

Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: Flesh and blood cannot[34] inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.  Listen, I will tell you a mystery: We[35] will not all sleep, but we will all be changed – in a moment, in the blinking of an eye, at the last trumpet.  For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.  For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality.

Now the church[36] is his body (σῶμα), the fullness of him who fills all[37] in all.

This mystery (Ephesians 5:31, 32), though well worth exploring, must wait for another essay.  A table comparing Psalm 40:6-8 in the Blue Letter Bible version and Academic Bible version of the Septuagint follows.  That is followed by tables of John 1:18; Romans 11:15; Luke 24:32; Romans 8:10, 11; Philippians 3:21; 1 Corinthians 15:50, 51 and Ephesians 1:23.

Psalm 40:6, 7, 8a (Septuagint BLB) Psalm 39:7-9a (Septuagint Academic)
θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας ὠτία δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι ὁλοκαύτωμα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ᾔτησας θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, ὠτία δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι· ὁλοκαύτωμα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ᾔτησας
τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ τότε εἶπον ᾿Ιδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ·
τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου ὁ θεός μου τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου, ὁ θεός μου
John 1:18 (NET) John 1:18 (KJV)
No one has ever seen God.  The only one, himself God, who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς[38] ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο θεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε ο μονογενης υιος ο ων εις τον κολπον του πατρος εκεινος εξηγησατο θεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε ο μονογενης υιος ο ων εις τον κολπον του πατρος εκεινος εξηγησατο
Romans 11:15 (NET) Romans 11:15 (KJV)
For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀποβολὴ αὐτῶν καταλλαγὴ κόσμου, τίς ἡ πρόσλημψις εἰ μὴ ζωὴ ἐκ νεκρῶν ει γαρ η αποβολη αυτων καταλλαγη κοσμου τις η προσληψις ει μη ζωη εκ νεκρων ει γαρ η αποβολη αυτων καταλλαγη κοσμου τις η προσληψις ει μη ζωη εκ νεκρων
Luke 24:32 (NET) Luke 24:32 (KJV)
They said to each other, “Didn’t our hearts burn within us while he was speaking with us on the road, while he was explaining the scriptures to us?” And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς ἀλλήλους· οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν  ὡς ἐλάλει ἡμῖν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, ὡς διήνοιγεν ἡμῖν τὰς γραφάς και ειπον προς αλληλους ουχι η καρδια ημων καιομενη ην εν ημιν ως ελαλει ημιν εν τη οδω και ως διηνοιγεν ημιν τας γραφας και ειπον προς αλληλους ουχι η καρδια ημων καιομενη ην εν ημιν ως ελαλει ημιν εν τη οδω και ως διηνοιγεν ημιν τας γραφας
Romans 8:10, 11 (NET) Romans 8:10, 11 (KJV)
But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness. And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην ει δε χριστος εν υμιν το μεν σωμα νεκρον δι αμαρτιαν το δε πνευμα ζωη δια δικαιοσυνην ει δε χριστος εν υμιν το μεν σωμα νεκρον δια αμαρτιαν το δε πνευμα ζωη δια δικαιοσυνην
Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who lives in you. But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας |Χριστὸν| ἐκ νεκρῶν  ζῳοποιήσει |καὶ| τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν ει δε το πνευμα του εγειραντος ιησουν εκ νεκρων οικει εν υμιν ο εγειρας τον χριστον εκ νεκρων ζωοποιησει και τα θνητα σωματα υμων δια το ενοικουν αυτου πνευμα εν υμιν ει δε το πνευμα του εγειραντος ιησουν εκ νεκρων οικει εν υμιν ο εγειρας τον χριστον εκ νεκρων ζωοποιησει και τα θνητα σωματα υμων δια το ενοικουν αυτου πνευμα εν υμιν
Philippians 3:21 (NET) Philippians 3:21 (KJV)
who will transform these humble bodies of ours into the likeness of his glorious body by means of that power by which he is able to subject all things to himself. Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ὃς μετασχηματίσει τὸ σῶμα τῆς ταπεινώσεως ἡμῶν σύμμορφον τῷ σώματι τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ δύνασθαι αὐτὸν καὶ ὑποτάξαι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα. ος μετασχηματισει το σωμα της ταπεινωσεως ημων εις το γενεσθαι αυτο συμμορφον τω σωματι της δοξης αυτου κατα την ενεργειαν του δυνασθαι αυτον και υποταξαι εαυτω τα παντα ος μετασχηματισει το σωμα της ταπεινωσεως ημων εις το γενεσθαι αυτο συμμορφον τω σωματι της δοξης αυτου κατα την ενεργειαν του δυνασθαι αυτον και υποταξαι εαυτω τα παντα
1 Corinthians 15:50, 51 (NET) 1 Corinthians 15:50, 51 (KJV)
Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Τοῦτο δέ φημι, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύναται οὐδὲ ἡ φθορὰ τὴν ἀφθαρσίαν κληρονομεῖ τουτο δε φημι αδελφοι οτι σαρξ και αιμα βασιλειαν θεου κληρονομησαι ου δυνανται ουδε η φθορα την αφθαρσιαν κληρονομει τουτο δε φημι αδελφοι οτι σαρξ και αιμα βασιλειαν θεου κληρονομησαι ου δυνανται ουδε η φθορα την αφθαρσιαν κληρονομει
Listen, I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed – Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα, πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα ιδου μυστηριον υμιν λεγω παντες μεν ου κοιμηθησομεθα παντες δε αλλαγησομεθα ιδου μυστηριον υμιν λεγω παντες μεν ου κοιμηθησομεθα παντες δε αλλαγησομεθα
Ephesians 1:23 (NET) Ephesians 1:23 (KJV)
Now the church is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἥτις ἐστὶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ, τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν πληρουμένου ητις εστιν το σωμα αυτου το πληρωμα του παντα εν πασιν πληρουμενου ητις εστιν το σωμα αυτου το πληρωμα του τα παντα εν πασιν πληρουμενου

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Exodus 29:1 a (NET)

[4] Hebrews 10:1 (NET)

[5] Exodus 29:9 (NET)

[6] The NET parallel Greek text had θυσίας, the plural form, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had θυσιαν, the singular form of θυσία.

[7] The NET parallel Greek text had προσφορὰς, the plural form, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had προσφοραν, the singular form of προσφορά.

[8] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ο θεος (KJV: O God) here.  The NET parallel Greek text did not.

[9] Study: Luke 4:18-19; Condemnation or Judgment? – Part 14; Forgiven or Passed Over? – Part 4

[10] Study: Luke 4:18-19

[11] Joseph Gleason, “Masoretic Text vs. Original Hebrew,” The Orthodox LifeHere is an alternative Orthodox opinion to Mr. Gleason’s view of Russia since his 2017 emigration there from Illinois.

[12] Karen H. Jobes, “The Function of Paronomasia in Hebrews 10:5–7

[13] John 1:14 (NET)

[14] John 1:18a (NET)

[15] The Stephanas Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ο preceding this, the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[16] The Stephanas Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had υιος here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had θεὸς.  See NET note 45.

[17] John 1:18b (NET)

[18] John 1:11 (NET)

[19] The NET parallel Greek text had πρόσλημψις here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had προσληψις.  Both are nominative singular feminine forms of πρόσληψις.

[20] Romans 11:15, 16 (NET)

[21] The NET parallel Greek text did not include εν ημιν (within us) here but added the English words “for clarity” anyway, as explained in note 88: “NA27 [Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece] includes the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.”  NA28 still contains the words εν ημιν in brackets.

[22] The Stephanas Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the conjunction και here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[23] Luke 24:32 (NET)

[24] Romans 6:6 (NET)

[25] Colossians 1:21-23a (NET)

[26] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had δι here, where the NET parallel Greek text, Byzantine Majority Text and NA28 had διὰ.

[27] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had the article τὸν preceding Jesus.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[28] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the article τὸν preceding Christ.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[29] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had πνεύματος, a genitive singular neuter form of πνεῦμα here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πνευμα, the nominative / accusative singular neuter form.

[30] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἐνοικοῦντος, a present active participle genitive active singular neuter form of ἐνοικέω here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ενοικουν, the present active participle accusative singular neuter form.

[31] Romans 8:10, 11 (NET)

[32] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εις το γενεσθαι αυτο συμμορφον (KJV: that it may be fashioned like unto) here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had simply σύμμορφον (a form of συμμορφός).

[33] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had αὐτῷ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εαυτω.

[34] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had δύναται here, a present middle / passive deponent indicative 3rd person singular form of δύναμαι.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δυνανται, the present middle / passive deponent indicative 3rd person plural form.

[35] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had μεν at the beginning of this clause.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[36] This is ἐκκλησίᾳ in Greek, found actually at the end of verse 22.

[37] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had the article τὰ preceding the first all.  The Stephanas Textus Receptus did not.

[38] See NET note 45.