Atonement, Part 10

This is a continuation of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  I thought to skip the next two verses as an aside with no direct correspondent in Leviticus 8.  The Holy Spirit thought better (Exodus 29:29, 30 NET):

The holy (qôdesh, הקדש; Septuagint: ἁγίου, a form of ἅγιος) garments that belong to Aaron are to belong to his sons after him, so that they may be anointed in them and consecrated (mâlêʼ, ולמלא; Septuagint: τελειῶσαι τὰς χεῖρας) in them.  The priest who succeeds him from his sons, when he first comes to the tent of meeting to minister in the Holy Place (qôdesh, בקדש; Septuagint: ἁγίοις, another form of ἅγιος), is to wear them for seven days.

I won’t consider ἁγίου or any other form of ἅγιος here except to highlight how often the word serves as a pointer to the source of holiness.  Nor will I look again at τελειῶσαι τὰς χεῖρας.  The Hebrew word translated may be anointed was למשחה (mishchâh), which was translated χρισθῆναι (a form of χρίω) in the Septuagint.  I will consider other forms of χρίω in the New Testament.

The book of Hebrews begins by contrasting Jesus to angels: For to which of the angels (ἀγγέλων, a form of ἄγγελος) did God ever say,You are my son!  Today I have fathered you”?  And in another place he says,I will be his father and he will be my son.”[3]  Malachi had prophesied:

Malachi 3:1 (Tanakh)

Malachi 3:1 (KJV)

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the LORD, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts. Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.

Here in the last book of the Old Testament the One who shall suddenly come to his temple was called both the Lord (ʼădônây, האדון) and the messenger (malʼâk, ומלאך; Septuagint: ἄγγελος) of the covenant.  It makes sense then that Hebrews, what I am considering the first book written of the New Testament, would begin by demonstrating that this particular messenger (ἄγγελος) was not of the phylum of the angels (ἀγγέλων, a form of ἄγγελος) in the spiritual kingdom.

The quotation—“You are my son!  Today I have fathered you”—was verbatim from the Septuagint.

Hebrews 1:5a (NET parallel Greek)

Psalm 2:7b (Septuagint BLB)

Psalm 2:7b (Septuagint Elpenor)

υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκα σε υἱός μου εἶ σύ ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε

As I consider the full text from the Tanakh and an English translation of the Septuagint, I hear a kind of corrective to the translators’ attitude that their “instruction” was the point of the psalm.

Psalm 2 (Tanakh)

Psalm 2 (NETS)

Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? Why did nations grow insolent, and peoples contemplate vain things?
The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), and against his anointed, saying, The kings of the earth stood side by side, and the rulers gathered together, against the Lord and against his anointed,
Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. “Let us burst their bonds asunder and cast their yoke from us.”
He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the LORD shall have them in derision. He who resides in the heavens will laugh at them and the Lord will mock them.
Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure. Then he will speak to them in his wrath, and in his anger he will trouble them.
Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. “But I was established king by him, on Sion, his holy mountain,
I will declare the decree: the LORD (yehôvih, יהוה) hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. By proclaiming the Lord’s ordinance: The Lord said to me, ‘My son you are; today I have begotten you.
Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Ask of me, and I will give you nations as your heritage, and as your possession the ends of the earth.
Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel. You shall shepherd them with an iron rod; like a potter’s vessel you will shatter them.’”
Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. And now, O kings, be sensible; be instructed, all you who judge the earth.
Serve the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Be subject to the Lord with fear, and rejoice in him with trembling.
Kiss (nâshaq, נשקו) the Son (bar, בר), lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little.  Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. Seize (Septuagint: δράξασθε, a form of δράσσομαι) upon instruction (παιδείας, a form of παιδεία), lest the Lord be angry, and you will perish from the righteous way, when his anger quickly blazes out.  Happy are all who trust in him.

The author of Hebrews clearly put the focus back on the anointed Son of the Hebrew psalm rather than the “instruction” of the rabbis who translated the Septuagint.  The quotation—I will be his father and he will be my son—was also verbatim from the Septuagint.

Hebrews 1:5b (NET parallel Greek)

2 Samuel 7:14a (Septuagint BLB)

2 Kings 7:14a (Septuagint Elpenor)

ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν

Hebrews 1:5b (NET parallel Greek)

1 Chronicles 17:13a (Septuagint BLB)

1 Chronicles 17:13a (Septuagint Elpenor)

ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν

Jesus, the messenger of the covenant, was not only the son of God but the son of David, as yehôvâh promised David through the prophet Nathan.

2 Samuel 7:12-16 (Tanakh)

2 Reigns 7:12-16 (Septuagint)

When thy days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, that shall proceed out of thy body, and I will establish his kingdom. And it will be if your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, that I will raise up your offspring after you who shall be from your belly, and I will prepare his kingdom;
He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever. he shall build me a house for my name, and I will restore his throne forever.
I will be to him for a father, and he shall be to Me for a son; if he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men; I will be a father to him, and he shall be a son to me, and if his injustice comes, then I will punish him with a rod of men and with attacks of sons of men,
but My mercy shall not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. But I will not remove my mercy from him, as I removed it from those whom I removed from before me.
And thy house and thy kingdom shall be made sure for ever before thee; thy throne shall be established for ever. And his house and his kingdom shall be made sure forever before me, and his throne shall be restored forever.

But when he again brings his firstborn into the world, he says,Let all the angels of God worship him![4]  This is a bit more problematic since the quotation—Let all the angels of God worship him—is verbatim in the Elpenor version of the Septuagint only.

Hebrews 1:6b (NET parallel Greek)

Deuteronomy 32:43 (Septuagint BLB)

Deuteronomy 32:43 (Septuagint Elpenor)

προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες υἱοὶ θεοῦ…ἐνισχυσάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι Θεοῦ…ἐνισχυσάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες υἱοὶ Θεοῦ
Hebrews 1:6b (NET) Deuteronomy 32:43 (NETS) Deuteronomy 32:43 (English Elpenor)
Let all the angels of God worship him! let all the divine sons do obeisance to him…let all the angels of God prevail for him let all the angels of God worship him…let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him

It is scrambled some in the BLB version of the Septuagint with προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες in one clause and ἄγγελοι θεοῦ in another.  The phrases ἄγγελοι Θεοῦ (angels of God) and υἱοὶ Θεοῦ (sons of God) are reversed relative to the Elpenor version and the quotation in Hebrews 1:6.  On top of that both clauses are missing entirely in translations from contemporary Hebrew.

From Hebrew

From Greek

Deuteronomy 32:43 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:43 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:43 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:43 (English Elpenor)

Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; for He doth avenge the blood of His servants, and doth render vengeance to His adversaries, and doth make expiation for the land of His people. Rejoice, O ye nations, with his people: for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will render vengeance to his adversaries, and will be merciful unto his land, and to his people. Be glad, O skies, with him, and let all the divine sons do obeisance to him.  Be glad, O nations, with his people, and let all the angels of God prevail for him.  For he will avenge the blood of his sons and take revenge and repay the enemies with a sentence, and he will repay those who hate, and the Lord shall cleanse the land of his people. Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him; for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will render vengeance, and recompense justice to his enemies, and will reward them that hate him; and the Lord shall purge the land of his people.

It didn’t make any sense.  Why would the Masoretes keep Kiss the Son and discard let all the angels of God worship him, when the most likely referent for him was yehôvâh?  Though I asked the question, I didn’t really expect an answer.  I was, however, curious why the author of Hebrews thought this vanishing quote related to Jesus.  More to the point, why did Jesus teach his disciples that it referred to Him?  So I looked more closely at the available referents for him.

Reference

Tanakh/KJV Hebrew BLB/Elpenor Greek NETS/Elpenor English

Table Below

Deuteronomy 32:3 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, יהוה κυρίου/ Κυρίου Lord Table2
Deuteronomy 32:6 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, ליהוה κυρίῳ/ Κυρίῳ Lord Table3
Deuteronomy 32:9 HaShem/ LORD’S yehôvâh, יהוה κυρίου/ Κυρίου Lord’s/ Lord Table4
Deuteronomy 32:12 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, יהוה κύριος/ Κύριος Lord Table5
Deuteronomy 32:19 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, יהוה κύριος/ Κύριος Lord Table7
Deuteronomy 32:27 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, יהוה κύριος/ Κύριος Lord Table8
Deuteronomy 32:30 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, ויהוה κύριος/ Κύριος Lord Table9
Deuteronomy 32:36 HaShem/ LORD yehôvâh, יהוה κύριος/ Κύριος Lord Table10
Deuteronomy 32:4 Rock tsûr, הצור θεός/ Θεός God Table2
Deuteronomy 32:15 Rock tsûr, צור θεοῦ/ Θεοῦ God Table6
Deuteronomy 32:18 Rock tsûr, צור θεὸν/ Θεὸν God Table7
Deuteronomy 32:30 Rock tsûr, צורם θεὸς/ Θεὸς God Table9
Deuteronomy 32:31 Rock tsûr, צורם θεὸς/ Θεὸς God
Deuteronomy 32:3 G-d/ God ʼĕlôhı̂ym, לאלהינו θεῷ/ Θεῷ God Table2
Deuteronomy 32:4 G-d/ God ʼêl, אל θεὸς/ Θεὸς god/ God
Deuteronomy 32:15 G-d/ God ʼĕlôahh, אלוה θεὸν/ Θεὸν God Table6
Deuteronomy 32:18 G-d/ God ʼêl, אל θεοῦ/ Θεοῦ God Table7
Deuteronomy 32:8 Most High ʽelyôn, עליון ὕψιστος/ Υψιστος Most High Table4

He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children (bên, בני) of Israel (yiśrâʼêl),[5] caught my attention since the NETS read, “he fixed boundaries of nations according to the number of divine (θεοῦ, another form of θεός) sons” (ἀγγέλων, a form of ἄγγελος).  Why would anyone translate bên yiśrâʼêl (children of Israel) ἀγγέλων θεοῦ (NETS: “divine sons;” Elpenor English Translation: angels of God).  A note (14) in the NET offered a clue:

…a Qumran fragment has “sons of God,”… “Sons of God” is undoubtedly the original reading; the MT and LXX have each interpreted it differently.  MT assumes that the expression “sons of God” refers to Israel (cf. Hos. 1:10), while LXX has assumed that the phrase refers to the angelic heavenly assembly (Pss 29:1; 89:6; cf. as well Ps 82).

Suddenly, the answer I wasn’t expecting was right in my face.  The Masoretes kept Kiss the Son because they thought the Son was Israel.  And they weren’t wrong.  Jesus is as much a son of Israel as He is a son of David.   In an essay, “In Psalm 2:12, is Kiss the Son a mistranslation by the Christians?” on Jews for Jesus online, Joseph Sarachek[6] was quoted:

Ibn Ezra rejects the simple and acceptable meaning of ‘bar’ as pure and inclines to translate it as son, referring it to the “anointed one” in v. 2 and making it the apposite of “Thou art my son” in v. 7. Bar would then allude to Israel.

I still didn’t have a clue why they might discard something as innocuous as Let all the angels of God worship him!  Who did they think him was?  Eventually I came to Deuteronomy 32:15 (Tanakh):

But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked–thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross–and he forsook G-d who made him, and contemned the Rock of his salvation (NETS: “God his Saviour”).

The Hebrew word translated salvation was ישעתו (yeshûʽâh).  Yeshua, apparently, is way too close to the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Jesus) for the Masoretes to allow any suggestion that the angels of God might worship Him.  Given a choice between the Rock of his salvation and the more innocuous Let all the angels of God worship him, the latter, it appears, was chosen for elimination.

This Rock was translated with some form of θεὸς (See Table above) in the Septuagint every time it occurred in Moses’ song.  Not so with the story of the Rock recorded in Exodus (17:6 Tanakh):

Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock (tsûr, הצור; Septuagint: πέτρας, a form of πέτρα) in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock (tsûr, בצור; Septuagint: πέτραν, another form of πέτρα), and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’  And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

Later Moses, frustrated with the people, struck the Rock in anger when HaShem had told him to speak to it.  Here the Rock was called by a different name in contemporary Hebrew, though not in Greek in the Septuagint (Numbers 20:7-12 Tanakh):

And HaShem spoke unto Moses, saying: ‘Take the rod, and assemble the congregation, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock (selaʽ, הסלע; Septuagint: πέτραν, another form of πέτρα) before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock (selaʽ, הסלע; Septuagint: πέτρας, a form of πέτρα); so thou shalt give the congregation and their cattle drink.’

And Moses took the rod from before HaShem, as He commanded him.  And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock (selaʽ, הסלע; Septuagint: πέτρας, a form of πέτρα), and he said unto them: ‘Hear now, ye rebels; are we to bring you forth water out of this rock (selaʽ, הסלע; Septuagint: πέτρας, a form of πέτρα)?’  And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock (selaʽ, הסלע; Septuagint: πέτραν, another form of πέτρα) with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle.  And HaShem said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘Because ye believed not in Me, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.’

Paul wrote believers in Corinth (1 Corinthians 10:1-4 NET):

For[7] I do not want you to be unaware, brothers and sisters, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses[8] in the cloud and in the sea, and all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink.  For they were all drinking from the spiritual rock (πέτρας, a form of πέτρα) that followed them, and the rock (πέτρα) was Christ.

The translators of the Septuagint weren’t wrong to call the Rock of HaShem’s Salvation (yeshûʽâh, ישעתו) God.

I haven’t even gotten to a form of χρίω yet, but will pick it up from here in another essay.  A table comparing Psalm 2:12 in the Elpenor and BLB versions of the Septuagint, tables comparing Deuteronomy 32:3, 4; 32:6; 32:8, 9; 32:12; 32:15; 32:18, 19; 32:27; 32:30, 31 and 32:36 in the Tanankh, KJV, NETS and Elpenor English translations, and a table comparing 1 Corinthians 10:1, 2 in the NET and KJV follow.

Psalm 2:12, 13 (Septuagint Elpenor)

Psalm 2:12 (Septuagint BLB)

δράξασθε παιδείας, μήποτε ὀργισθῇ Κύριος καὶ ἀπολεῖσθε ἐξ ὁδοῦ δικαίας δράξασθε παιδείας μήποτε ὀργισθῇ κύριος καὶ ἀπολεῖσθε ἐξ ὁδοῦ δικαίας ὅταν ἐκκαυθῇ ἐν τάχει ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ μακάριοι πάντες οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ
ὅταν ἐκκαυθῇ ἐν τάχει ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ, μακάριοι πάντες οἱ πεποιθότες ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ

From Hebrew

From Greek

Deuteronomy 32:3, 4 (Tanakh)

Deuteronomy 32:3, 4 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:3, 4 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:3, 4 (English Elpenor)

For I will proclaim the name of HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה); ascribe ye greatness unto our G-d (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, לאלהינו). Because I will publish the name of the LORD: ascribe ye greatness unto our God. For I have called out the name of the Lord (κυρίου, a form of κύριος); ascribe greatness to our God (θεῷ, a form of θεός)! For I have called on the name of the Lord (Κυρίου): assign ye greatness to our God (Θεῷ).
The Rock (tsûr, הצור), His work is perfect; for all His ways are justice; a G-d (ʼêl, אל) of faithfulness and without iniquity, just and right is He. He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he. God (θεός)—his works are genuine, and all his ways are justice.  A faithful god (θεὸς), and there is no injustice, a righteous and holy Lord (κύριος); [As for God (Θεός)], his works [are] true, and all his ways [are] judgment: God (Θεὸς) [is] faithful, and there is no unrighteousness [in him]; just and holy [is] the Lord (Κύριος).

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:6 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:6 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:6 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:6 (English Elpenor)

Do ye thus requite HaShem (yehôvâh, ליהוה ה), O foolish people and unwise? is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? hath He not made thee, and established thee? Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? is not he thy father that hath bought thee? hath he not made thee, and established thee? Do you thus repay the Lord (κυρίῳ, another form of κύριος) these things, O people, foolish and not wise?  Did not he himself, you father, acquire you and make you and create you? Do ye thus recompense the Lord (Κυρίῳ)? [is the] people thus foolish and unwise? did not he himself thy father purchase thee, and make thee, and form thee?

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:8, 9 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:8, 9 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:8, 9 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:8, 9 (English Elpenor)

When the Most High (ʽelyôn, עליון) gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children (bên, בני) of Israel (yiśrâʼêl, ישׁראל). When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. When the Most High (ὕψιστος) was apportioning the nations, as he scattered Adam’s sons, he fixed boundaries of nations according to the number of divine (θεοῦ, another form of θεός) sons (ἀγγέλων, a form of ἄγγελος), When the Most High (Υψιστος) divided the nations, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels (ἀγγέλων, a form of ἄγγελος) of God (Θεοῦ, a form of θεός).
For the portion of HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance. For the LORD’S portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. And his people Iakob became the Lord’s (κυρίου, a form of κύριος) portion, Israel a measured part of his inheritance. And his people Jacob became the portion of the Lord (Κυρίου), Israel was the line of his inheritance.

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:12 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:12 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:12 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:12 (English Elpenor)

HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) alone did lead him [e.g., Jacob, His people], and there was no strange god with Him. So the LORD alone did lead him, and there was no strange god with him. The Lord (κύριος) alone was leading them, and no foreign god was with them. the Lord (Κύριος) alone led them, there was no strange god with them.

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:15 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:15 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:15 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:15 (English Elpenor)

But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked–thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross–and he forsook G-d (ʼĕlôahh, אלוה) who made him, and contemned the Rock (tsûr, צור) of his salvation (yeshûʽâh, ישעתו). But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness; then he forsook God which made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation. And Iakob ate and was filled, and the beloved one kicked.  He grew fat; he became heavy; he became broad!  And he abandoned God (θεὸν, another form of θεός) who made him, and he departed from God (θεοῦ, another form of θεός) his savior (σωτῆρος, a form of σωτήρ). So Jacob ate and was filled, and the beloved one kicked; he grew fat, he became thick and broad: then he forsook the God (Θεὸν) that made him, and departed from God (Θεοῦ) his Saviour (σωτῆρος, a form of σωτήρ).

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:18, 19 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:18, 19 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:18, 19 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:18, 19 (English Elpenor)

Of the Rock (tsûr, צור) that begot thee thou wast unmindful, and didst forget G-d (ʼêl, אל) that bore thee. Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee. You abandoned God (θεὸν, another form of θεός) who bore you, and you forgot God (θεοῦ, another form of θεός) who nurtures you. Thou hast forsaken God (Θεὸν) that begot thee, and forgotten God (Θεοῦ) who feeds thee.
And HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) saw, and spurned, because of the provoking of His sons and His daughters. And when the LORD saw it, he abhorred them, because of the provoking of his sons, and of his daughters. And the Lord (κύριος) saw it and was jealous, and he was provoked on account of the wrath of his sons and daughters. And the Lord (Κύριος) saw, and was jealous; and was provoked by the anger of his sons and daughters,

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:27 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:27 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:27 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:27 (English Elpenor)

Were it not that I dreaded the enemy’s provocation, lest their adversaries should misdeem, lest they should say: Our hand is exalted, and not HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) hath wrought all this.’ Were it not that I feared the wrath of the enemy, lest their adversaries should behave themselves strangely, and lest they should say, Our hand is high, and the LORD hath not done all this. were it not for wrath of the enemies so that they may not last long and so that there adversaries not collaborate, let them not say, “Our hand is high, and it was not the Lord (κύριος) who did all these things.” Were it not for the wrath of the enemy, lest they should live long, lest their enemies should combine against them; lest they should say, Our own high arm, and not the Lord (Κύριος), has done all these things.

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:30, 31 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:30, 31 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:30, 31 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:30, 31 (English Elpenor)

How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock (tsûr, צורם) had given them over and HaShem (yehôvâh, ויהוה) had delivered them up? How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and the LORD had shut them up? How shall one pursue thousands and two remove myriads unless God (θεὸς) sold them and the Lord (κύριος) delivered them up? How should one pursue a thousand, and two rout tens of thousands, if God (Θεὸς) had not sold them, and the Lord (Κύριος) delivered them up?
For their rock (tsûr, כצורנו) is not as our Rock (tsûr, צורם), even our enemies themselves being judges. For their rock is not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves being judges. For not like our God (θεὸς) are their gods (θεοὶ, another form of θεός), but our enemies are without understanding. For their gods (θεοὶ) are not as our God (Θεὸς), but our enemies [are] void of understanding.

From Hebrew

From Greek
Deuteronomy 32:36 (Tanakh) Deuteronomy 32:36 (KJV) Deuteronomy 32:36 (NETS)

Deuteronomy 32:36 (English Elpenor)

For HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) will judge His people, and repent Himself for His servants; when He seeth that their stay is gone, and there is none remaining, shut up or left at large. For the LORD shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone, and there is none shut up, or left. For the Lord (κύριος) will judge his people and be comforted over his slaves.  For he saw them paralyzed, both failed under attack and enfeebled. For the Lord (Κύριος) shall judge his people, and shall be comforted over his servants; for he saw that they were utterly weakened, and failed in the hostile invasion, and were become feeble:

1 Corinthians 10:1, 2 (NET)

1 Corinthians 10:1, 2 (KJV)

For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers and sisters, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea, Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Οὐ θέλω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν πάντες ὑπὸ τὴν νεφέλην ἦσαν καὶ πάντες διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης διῆλθον ου θελω δε υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι οτι οι πατερες ημων παντες υπο την νεφελην ησαν και παντες δια της θαλασσης διηλθον ου θελω δε υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι οτι οι πατερες ημων παντες υπο την νεφελην ησαν και παντες δια της θαλασσης διηλθον
and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

καὶ πάντες εἰς τὸν Μωϋσῆν |ἐβαπτίσαντο| ἐν τῇ νεφέλῃ καὶ ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ και παντες εις τον μωσην εβαπτισαντο εν τη νεφελη και εν τη θαλασση και παντες εις τον μωυσην εβαπτισαντο εν τη νεφελη και εν τη θαλασση

 

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Hebrews 1:5 (NET)

[4] Hebrews 1:6 (NET)

[5] Deuteronomy 32:8b (Tanakh) ישׁראל

[6] Joseph Sarachek, The Doctrine of the Messiah in Medieval Jewish Literature (New York: Hermon Press, 1968), p. 121.

[7] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had γὰρ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δε (KJV: Moreover).

[8] In the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 Moses was spelled Μωϋσῆν, and μωσην in the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text.

Atonement, Part 9

This is a continuation of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  The atonement of Aaron and his sons continued with the breast of the second ram:

Exodus 29:26 (NET)

Leviticus 8:29 (NET)

You are to take the breast of the ram of Aaron’s consecration (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις); you are to wave it as a wave offering before the Lord, and it is to be your share. Finally, Moses took the breast and waved it as a wave offering (tenûphâh, תנופה; Septuagint: ἐπίθεμα) before the Lord from the ram of ordination (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις).  It was Moses’ share just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

Though τελειώσεως, the translation of המלאים (millûʼ) in the Septuagint, doesn’t occur in the New Testament, I’ve already considered its root τελείωσις in two essays.[3]  The Greek word ἐπίθεμα is another, used to translate תנופה (tenûphâh) in the Septuagint, that does not occur in the New Testament.  But we have come finally to those things Aaron and his sons are to eat that no one else may eat (Exodus 29:27, 28 NET):

You are to sanctify (qâdash, וקדשת; Septuagint: ἁγιάσεις, another form of ἁγιάζω) the breast of the wave offering (tenûphâh, התנופה; Septuagint: ἀφόρισμα) and the thigh of the contribution (terûmâh, התרומה; Septuagint: ἀφαιρέματος), which were waved and lifted up as a contribution from the ram of consecration (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις), from what belongs to Aaron and to his sons.  It is to belong to Aaron and to his sons from the Israelites, by a perpetual ordinance, for it is a contribution (terûmâh, תרומה; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα).  It is to be a contribution (terûmâh, ותרומה; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα) from the Israelites from their peace offerings, their contribution (terûmâh, תרומתם; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα) to the Lord.

I still plan to reserve any further study of forms of ἁγιάζω for another series of essays.  The Greek words ἀφόρισμα, another translation of התנופה (tenûphâh), ἀφαιρέματος (a form of ἀφαίρεμα), a translation of התרומה (terûmâh) and ἀφαίρεμα were not used in the New Testament.  But the word translated peace offerings above was שלמיהם (shelem) in Hebrew.  It was translated τῶν θυμάτων τῶν σωτηρίων (a form of σωτήριον[4]) in the Septuagint, which was translated back into English as “the victims of deliverance.”  This was a fairly rich vein to mine.

Luke wrote in his Gospel narrative (Luke 2:25-32 NET):

Now there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon who was righteous and devout, looking for the restoration of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him.  It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen[5] the Lord’s Christ.  So Simeon, directed by the Spirit, came into the temple courts, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what was customary according to the law, Simeon took him in his[6] arms and blessed God, saying, “Now, according to your word, Sovereign Lord, permit your servant to depart in peace.  For my eyes have seen your salvation (σωτήριον) that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples: a light, for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to your people Israel.”

So Simeon, led by the Holy Spirit, declared Jesus the Sovereign Lord’s salvation, his peace offering, his victim of deliverance.  Again, I turn to Luke’s Gospel narrative (Luke 3:1-6 NET):

In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch[7] of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, during the high priesthood[8] of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John the[9] son of Zechariah in the wilderness.  He went into all the region around the Jordan River, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.  As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet,[10] “The voice of one shouting in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths straight.  Every valley will be filled, and every mountain and hill will be brought low, and the crooked will be made straight, and the rough ways will be made smooth, and all humanity will see the salvation (σωτήριον) of God.’”

Luke indirectly (John 1:29-34) ascribed a prophecy about yehôvâh to Jesus.  Here is the scripture he quoted from the Tanakh and KJV: 

Isaiah 40:3-5 (Tanakh)

Isaiah 40:3-5 (KJV)

The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), make straight in the desert a highway for our God.  Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) hath spoken it. The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.  Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

The first thing I noticed is that there is no mention of the salvation of God in translations made from contemporary Hebrew.  So I compared Luke’s Greek to the Septuagint.

Luke 3:4b-6 (NET parallel Greek)

Isaiah 40:3, 4, 5 (Septuagint)

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ· ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν
πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς |εὐθείαν| καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία
καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν

Here are both clauses: καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου (NETS: “Then the glory of the Lord shall appear”), καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ (NETS: “and all flesh shall see the salvation of God”).  Luke only quoted the latter.  I am less concerned that he ended his quotation before ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν (NETS: “because the Lord has spoken”[11]).  Luke also substituted αὐτοῦ (his) for τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν (for our God) and ὁδοὺς λείας (ways will be made smooth) for πεδία (places plain).

I compared Isaiah 40:3-5 from the BLB version of the Septuagint with the Elpenor version (Table1 below).  The only difference was ὁδοὺς λείας rather than πεδία.  That alleviated my initial concern somewhat.  If believers had changed πεδία to ὁδοὺς λείας to conform better to Luke’s quotation, why didn’t they go all out and change τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν to αὐτοῦ and drop καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου all together?  These may be two distinct versions of the Septuagint.  So why not imagine a third version that conforms even better to Luke’s quotation?

Frankly, without having a third version in hand for comparison I don’t want the complication.  Paul called Jesus τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ (our great God) in an ostensibly private letter to Titus.  I could see Luke’s substitution of αὐτοῦ for τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν as a courtesy to believing Jews.  The word αὐτοῦ (his) referring back to yehôvâh did not change the meaning at all, but it was a softer touch than calling Jesus our God.  And Luke may have dropped καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου (NETS: “Then the glory of the Lord shall appear”) at the Holy Spirit’s behest.  Jesus’ first advent was by no means the full revelation of his glory as yehôvâh come in human flesh (Malachi 3:1-7a Tanakh). 

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the LORD (ʼădônây, האדון), whom ye seek (Revelation 19:11-16), shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) of hosts.  But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’ soap: And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD (yehôvâh, ליהוה) an offering in righteousness.  Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the LORD (yehôvâh, ליהוה), as in the days of old, and as in former years.

And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger from his right, and fear not me, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) of hosts.  For I am the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed.  Even from the days of your fathers ye are gone away from mine ordinances, and have not kept them.  Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) of hosts.

So they [the local Jewish leaders] began to leave, Luke wrote, unable to agree among themselves, after Paul made one last statement: “The Holy Spirit spoke rightly to your ancestors through the prophet Isaiah when he said, ‘Go to this people and say,[12]You will keep on hearing, but will never understand, and you will keep on looking, but will never perceive.  For the heart of this people has become dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal[13] them.”’
“Therefore be advised that this[14] salvation (σωτήριον) from God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen!”[15]

Here is a table comparing Luke’s Greek with the Septuagint.  The BLB and Elpenor versions of the Septuagint are compared in Table2 below.

Acts 28:26b, 27 (NET parallel Greek) Isaiah 6:9b, 10 (Septuagint)
πορεύθητι πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον καὶ εἰπόν ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε
ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς

For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, Paul wrote believers in Rome, so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel until[16] the full number (πλήρωμα) of the Gentiles has come in.[17]  This time of parital hardening until the full number of the Gentiles has come in is predicated upon Gentiles listening: they will listen (ἀκούσονται, a form of ἀκούω), Paul wrote, or hear.  This hearing is a bit more complicated than it might at first appear.  Surely, from the human side it requires both a willingness and capacity to sit quietly long enough to provide the opportunity for hearing.  It also involves God sending those who are qualified to preach (Romans 10:14b, 15a NET):

And how are they to believe[18] in one they have not heard (ἤκουσαν, another form of ἀκούω) of?  And how are they to hear[19] (ἀκούσωσιν, another form of ἀκούω) without someone preaching to them?  And how are they to preach[20] unless they are sent (ἀποσταλῶσιν, a form of ἀποστέλλω)?

Still, hearing only comes through God’s (or Christ’s) own spoken word: So then faith comes by hearing (ἀκοῆς, a form of ἀκοή), and hearing (ἀκοὴ, another form of ἀκοή) by the word (ρήματος, a form of ῥῆμα) of God.[21]  Even after all the time they spent with Him, Jesus’ disciples weren’t able to put it all together until he opened (διήνοιξεν, a form of διανοίγω) their minds: Then he opened their minds so they could understand (συνιέναι, a form of συνίημι) the scriptures[22]  Witnessing the failure of any of these things in Gentiles as they become manifest in the descendants of Jacob signals the end of this time of Israel’s partial hardening (Titus 2:11-14 NET).

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation[23] (σωτήριος, another form of σωτήριον) to all people.  It trains us to reject godless ways and worldly desires and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age, as we wait for the happy fulfillment of our hope in the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ.  He gave himself for us to set us free from every kind of lawlessness and to purify for himself a people who are truly his, who are eager to do good.

Tables comparing Isaiah 40:3-5 and Isaiah 6:9, 10 in the Elpenor and BLB versions of the Septuagint, and tables of Luke 2:26; 2:28; 3:1, 2; 3:4; Acts 28:26-28; Romans 11:25; 10:14, 15; 10:17 and Titus 2:11 comparing the NET and KJV follow.

Isaiah 40:3-5 (Septuagint Elpenor) Isaiah 40:3, 4, 5 (Septuagint BLB)
φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ· ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου. εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν. φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν
πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία
καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα Κυρίου, καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σάρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησε. καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν
Isaiah 6:9b, 10 (Septuagint Elpenor) Isaiah 6:9b, 10 (Septuagint BLB)
πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ· ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε
ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου, καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσι τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσι καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσι, καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσι, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς
Luke 2:26 (NET) Luke 2:26 (KJV)
It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord’s Christ.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
καὶ ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν [ἢ] ἂν ἴδῃ τὸν χριστὸν κυρίου και ην αυτω κεχρηματισμενον υπο του πνευματος του αγιου μη ιδειν θανατον πριν η ιδη τον χριστον κυριου και ην αυτω κεχρηματισμενον υπο του πνευματος του αγιου μη ιδειν θανατον πριν η ιδη τον χριστον κυριου
Luke 2:28 (NET) Luke 2:28 (KJV)
Simeon took him in his arms and blessed God, saying, Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας καὶ εὐλόγησεν τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἶπεν και αυτος εδεξατο αυτο εις τας αγκαλας αυτου και ευλογησεν τον θεον και ειπεν και αυτος εδεξατο αυτο εις τας αγκαλας αυτου και ευλογησεν τον θεον και ειπεν
Luke 3:1, 2 (NET) Luke 3:1, 2 (KJV)
In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Ἐν ἔτει δὲ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ τῆς ἡγεμονίας Τιβερίου Καίσαρος, ἡγεμονεύοντος Ποντίου Πιλάτου τῆς Ἰουδαίας, καὶ τετρααρχοῦντος τῆς Γαλιλαίας Ἡρῴδου, Φιλίππου δὲ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ τετρααρχοῦντος τῆς Ἰτουραίας καὶ Τραχωνίτιδος χώρας, καὶ Λυσανίου τῆς Ἀβιληνῆς τετρααρχοῦντος εν ετει δε πεντεκαιδεκατω της ηγεμονιας τιβεριου καισαρος ηγεμονευοντος ποντιου πιλατου της ιουδαιας και τετραρχουντος της γαλιλαιας ηρωδου φιλιππου δε του αδελφου αυτου τετραρχουντος της ιτουραιας και τραχωνιτιδος χωρας και λυσανιου της αβιληνης τετραρχουντος εν ετει δε πεντεκαιδεκατω της ηγεμονιας τιβεριου καισαρος ηγεμονευοντος ποντιου πιλατου της ιουδαιας και τετραρχουντος της γαλιλαιας ηρωδου φιλιππου δε του αδελφου αυτου τετραρχουντος της ιτουραιας και τραχωνιτιδος χωρας και λυσανιου της αβιληνης τετραρχουντος
during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness. Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως  Ἅννα καὶ Καϊάφα, ἐγένετο ρῆμα θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν Ζαχαρίου υἱὸν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ επ αρχιερεων αννα και καιαφα εγενετο ρημα θεου επι ιωαννην τον του ζαχαριου υιον εν τη ερημω επι αρχιερεως αννα και καιαφα εγενετο ρημα θεου επι ιωαννην τον ζαχαριου υιον εν τη ερημω
Luke 3:4 (NET) Luke 3:4 (KJV)
As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, “The voice of one shouting in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths straight. As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ ως γεγραπται εν βιβλω λογων ησαιου του προφητου λεγοντος φωνη βοωντος εν τη ερημω ετοιμασατε την οδον κυριου ευθειας ποιειτε τας τριβους αυτου ως γεγραπται εν βιβλω λογων ησαιου του προφητου λεγοντος φωνη βοωντος εν τη ερημω ετοιμασατε την οδον κυριου ευθειας ποιειτε τας τριβους αυτου
Acts 28:26-28 (NET) Acts 28:26-28 (KJV)
when he said, ‘Go to this people and say, “You will keep on hearing, but will never understand, and you will keep on looking, but will never perceive. Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive:
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
λέγων πορεύθητι πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον καὶ εἰπόν ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε λεγον πορευθητι προς τον λαον τουτον και ειπε ακοη ακουσετε και ου μη συνητε και βλεποντες βλεψετε και ου μη ιδητε λεγον πορευθητι προς τον λαον τουτον και ειπον ακοη ακουσετε και ου μη συνητε και βλεποντες βλεψετε και ου μη ιδητε
For the heart of this people has become dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.”’ For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς επαχυνθη γαρ η καρδια του λαου τουτου και τοις ωσιν βαρεως ηκουσαν και τους οφθαλμους αυτων εκαμμυσαν μηποτε ιδωσιν τοις οφθαλμοις και τοις ωσιν ακουσωσιν και τη καρδια συνωσιν και επιστρεψωσιν και ιασωμαι αυτους επαχυνθη γαρ η καρδια του λαου τουτου και τοις ωσιν βαρεως ηκουσαν και τους οφθαλμους αυτων εκαμμυσαν μηποτε ιδωσιν τοις οφθαλμοις και τοις ωσιν ακουσωσιν και τη καρδια συνωσιν και επιστρεψωσιν και ιασομαι αυτους
“Therefore be advised that this salvation from God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen!” Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and that they will hear it.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
γνωστὸν οὖν  ἔστω |ὑμῖν| ὅτι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἀπεστάλη τοῦτο τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ· αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀκούσονται γνωστον ουν εστω υμιν οτι τοις εθνεσιν απεσταλη το σωτηριον του θεου αυτοι και ακουσονται γνωστον ουν εστω υμιν οτι τοις εθνεσιν απεσταλη το σωτηριον του θεου αυτοι και ακουσονται
Romans 11:25 (NET) Romans 11:25 (KJV)
For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Οὐ γὰρ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ ἦτε [παρ᾿] ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι, ὅτι πώρωσις ἀπὸ μέρους τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γέγονεν ἄχρι οὗ τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσέλθῃ ου γαρ θελω υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι το μυστηριον τουτο ινα μη ητε παρ εαυτοις φρονιμοι οτι πωρωσις απο μερους τω ισραηλ γεγονεν αχρις ου το πληρωμα των εθνων εισελθη ου γαρ θελω υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι το μυστηριον τουτο ινα μη ητε παρ εαυτοις φρονιμοι οτι πωρωσις απο μερους τω ισραηλ γεγονεν αχρις ου το πληρωμα των εθνων εισελθη
Romans 10:14, 15 (NET) Romans 10:14, 15 (KJV)
How are they to call on one they have not believed in?  And how are they to believe in one they have not heard of?  And how are they to hear without someone preaching to them? How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Πῶς οὖν ἐπικαλέσωνται εἰς ὃν οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν; πῶς δὲ πιστεύσωσιν οὗ οὐκ ἤκουσαν; πῶς δὲ ἀκούσωσιν χωρὶς κηρύσσοντος πως ουν επικαλεσονται εις ον ουκ επιστευσαν πως δε πιστευσουσιν ου ουκ ηκουσαν πως δε ακουσουσιν χωρις κηρυσσοντος πως ουν επικαλεσονται εις ον ουκ επιστευσαν πως δε πιστευσουσιν ου ουκ ηκουσαν πως δε ακουσουσιν χωρις κηρυσσοντος
And how are they to preach unless they are sent?  As it is written, “How timely is the arrival of those who proclaim the good news.” And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
πῶς δὲ κηρύξωσιν ἐὰν μὴ ἀποσταλῶσιν; |καθὼς| γέγραπται· ὡς ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων [τὰ] ἀγαθά πως δε κηρυξουσιν εαν μη αποσταλωσιν καθως γεγραπται ως ωραιοι οι ποδες των ευαγγελιζομενων ειρηνην των ευαγγελιζομενων τα αγαθα πως δε κηρυξουσιν εαν μη αποσταλωσιν καθως γεγραπται ως ωραιοι οι ποδες των ευαγγελιζομενων ειρηνην των ευαγγελιζομενων τα αγαθα
Romans 10:17 (NET) Romans 10:17 (KJV)
Consequently faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the preached word of Christ. So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἄρα ἡ πίστις ἐξ ἀκοῆς, ἡ δὲ ἀκοὴ διὰ ρήματος Χριστοῦ αρα η πιστις εξ ακοης η δε ακοη δια ρηματος θεου αρα η πιστις εξ ακοης η δε ακοη δια ρηματος θεου
Titus 2:11 (NET) Titus 2:11 (KJV)
For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all people. For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Ἐπεφάνη γὰρ ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ σωτήριος πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις επεφανη γαρ η χαρις του θεου η σωτηριος πασιν ανθρωποις επεφανη γαρ η χαρις του θεου η σωτηριος πασιν ανθρωποις

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Atonement, Part 7; Atonement, Part 8

[4] This is according to Strong’s Concordance.  On Bible Hub the forms were derived from σωτήριος.

[5] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἂν preceding he had seen.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[6] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αυτου (KJV: his) here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[7] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had τετρααρχοῦντος here and two other occurrences, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had τετραρχουντος.

[8] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had αρχιερεων (KJV: high priests) here, where the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ἀρχιερέως.

[9] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had τον του here, where the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had simply τον.

[10] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had λεγοντος (KJV: saying) here following prophet.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[11] Isaiah 40:5 (NETS)

[12] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had εἰπόν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had ειπε.

[13] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ἰάσομαι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had ιασωμαι (KJV: should heal).

[14] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had τοῦτο τὸ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had simply τὸ.

[15] Acts 28:25-28 (NET)

[16] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἄχρι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αχρις.

[17] Romans 11:25 (NET)

[18] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had πιστεύσωσιν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πιστευσουσιν (KJV: shall they believe).

[19] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἀκούσωσιν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ακουσουσιν (KJV: shall they hear).

[20] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had κηρύξωσιν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had κηρυξουσιν (KJV: shall they preach).

[21] Romans 10:17 (NKJV) The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had Χριστοῦ (NET: Christ) here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had θεου.

[22] Luke 24:45 (NET)

[23] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the article η preceding salvation.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

Atonement, Part 8

This is a continuation of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  The atonement of Aaron and his sons continued:

Exodus 29:22-25 (NET)

Leviticus 8:25-28 (NET)

You are to take from the ram the fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the entrails, the lobe of the liver, the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and the right thigh – for it is the ram for consecration (millûʼ, מלאים; Septuagint: τελείωσις)  – Then he took the fat (the fatty tail, all the fat on the entrails, the protruding lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys and their fat) and the right thigh,
and one round flat cake of bread, one perforated cake of oiled bread, and one wafer from the basket of bread made without yeast that is before the Lord. and from the basket of unleavened bread that was before the Lord he took one unleavened loaf, one loaf of bread mixed with olive oil, and one wafer, and placed them on the fat parts and on the right thigh.
You are to put all these in Aaron’s hands and in his sons’ hands, and you are to wave them as a wave offering (tenûphâh, תנופה; Septuagint: ἀφόρισμα) before the Lord. He then put all of them on the palms of Aaron and his sons, who waved them as a wave offering (tenûphâh, תנופה; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα) before the Lord.
Then you are to take them from their hands and burn them on the altar for a burnt offering (ʽôlâh, העלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαυτώσεως, a form of ὁλοκαύτωσις), for a soothing aroma before the Lord.  It is an offering made by fire (ʼishshâh, אשה; Septuagint: κάρπωμά) to the Lord. Moses then took them from their palms and offered them up in smoke on the altar on top of the burnt offering (ʽôlâh, העלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαύτωμα) – they were an ordination (millûʼ, מלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις) offering for a soothing aroma; it was a gift (ʼishshâh, אשה]; Septuagint: κάρπωμά) to the Lord.

The words ἀφόρισμα and ἀφαίρεμα (wave offering) in the Septuagint were not used in the New Testament, nor were any forms of ὁλοκαύτωσις (burnt offering) or κάρπωμά (NET: offering made by fire, gift).  I’ve already considered all of the occurrences of ὁλοκαύτωμα.[3]  So I’ll continue with τελείωσις (Hebrews 7:11 NET):

So if perfection (τελείωσις) had in fact been possible through the Levitical priesthood – for on that basis[4] the people received the law[5] – what further need would there have been for another priest to arise, said to be in the order of Melchizedek and not in Aaron’s order?

I’ll back up here a bit to consider Melchizedek (Hebrews 6:17-20 NET):

God wanted to demonstrate more clearly to the heirs of the promise that his purpose was unchangeable, and so he intervened with an oath, so that we who have found refuge in him may find strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us through two unchangeable things, since it is impossible for God[6] to lie.  We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, sure and steadfast, which reaches inside behind the curtain, where Jesus our forerunner entered on our behalf, since he became a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.

Jesusbecame (γενόμενος, a form of γίνομαι) a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.  This alludes to Psalm 110:4, contrasted in the table below.

Hebrews 6:20b (NET)

Psalms 110:4 (Septuagint)

κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ ἀρχιερεὺς γενόμενος εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδεκ

The order of phrases was reversed from the Septuagint: κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ (NET: in the order of Melchizedek) preceded ἀρχιερεὺς…εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα (NET: a priest forever).  Also ἀρχιερεὺς (high priest) replaced ἱερεὺς (priest).  I’m noting it here because Hebrews 7:17b was a verbatim quote.

Hebrews 7:17b (NET)

Psalms 110:4 (Septuagint)

ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδεκ

Now this Melchizedek, the writer of Hebrews explained, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, met Abraham (Genesis 14:17-24) as he was returning from defeating the kings and blessed him.  To him also Abraham apportioned a tithe of everything.  His name first means king of righteousness, then king of Salem, that is, king of peace.  Without father, without mother, without genealogy, he has neither beginning of days nor end of life but is like the son of God, and he remains a priest for all time. [7]

The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) entry on Melchizedek read:

The story is neither an invention nor the product of a copyist’s error, as Cheyne (“Encyc. Bibl.”) thinks, but rests upon ancient Jerusalemic tradition (as Josephus, “B. J.” vi. 10, affirms; comp. Gunkel, “Genesis,” 1901, p. 261), “Zedek” being an ancient name of Jerusalem…The city’s first king, accordingly, was known either as “Adoni Zedek” (Josh. x. 1 et seq. ; comp. Judges i. 5-7, where “Adonizedek” is the correct reading) or as “Malkizedek.”  The fact that he united the royal with the priestly dignity, like all ancient (heathen) kings, made him a welcome type to the composer of the triumphal song (Ps. cx.).

Adoni-Zedek was one of the five kings Joshua killed (Joshua 10:22-27).  The writer of Hebrews, however, who I think wrote down what Jesus taught his disciples after his resurrection, highlighted a change in the law based on δύναμιν ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου, the power of an indestructible life (Hebrews 7:12-17 NET):

For when the priesthood changes, a change in the law must come as well.  Yet the one these things are spoken about belongs to a different tribe, and no one from that tribe has ever officiated at the altar.  For it is clear that our Lord is descended from Judah, yet Moses[8] said nothing about priests[9] in connection with that tribe.  And this is even clearer if another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, who has become a priest not by a legal regulation about physical[10] descent but by the power of an indestructible (ἀκαταλύτου, a form of ἀκατάλυτος) life.  For here is the testimony about him: “You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.”

The verb translated here is the testimony was μαρτυρεῖται (a form of μαρτυρέω) in the NET parallel Greek text and NA28.  In the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text it was μαρτυρει (KJV: he testifieth).  The only difference between them is that the former is passive while the latter is active.  This exercise reminded me that God testifies through David’s psalm whether the verb is active or passive.

In 1906 Isidore Singer and Kaufmann Kohler claimed that Adoni-Bezek (Judges 1:5-7) was actually Adoni-Zedek or Melchizedek.  So whether Melchizedek was a line of king-priests or some otherworldy being, his reputation for an indestructible life was what the Holy Spirit keyed on.  And though the philosophical bent of my mind usually groans and rolls its metaphorical eyes when confronted with prefigures and types, I have to acknowledge the unsettling oddity if Israel was obliged to kill the king of righteousness and peace more than once (the second time he died in captivity in Jerusalem) during their conquest of Canaan.

The writer of Hebrews continued with Jesus’ actual point (Hebrews 7:18, 19 NET):

On the one hand a former command is set aside because it is weak and useless, for the law made nothing perfect (ἐτελείωσεν, a form of τελειόω).  On the other hand a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God.

The KJV reads: For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did…  It is almost unique among English translations.  Paul described this better hope as the love of God…poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us (Romans 5:1-5 NET):

Therefore, since we have been declared righteous by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have also obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we rejoice in the hope of God’s glory.  Not only this, but we also rejoice in sufferings (θλίψεσιν, a form of θλίψις), knowing that suffering (θλῖψις) produces endurance, and endurance, character, and character, hope.  And hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

The writer of Hebrews continued (Hebrews 7:20-22 NET):

And since this was not done without a sworn affirmation – for the others have become priests without a sworn affirmation,[11] but Jesus did so with a sworn affirmation by the one who said to him, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind,You are a priest forever’” –[12] accordingly[13] Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant.

Here is a table comparing the quotation from Psalm 110:4 in the NET parallel Greek, Septuagint and Stephanus Textus Receptus:

Hebrews 7:21b (NET Parallel Greek)

Psalm 110:4 (Septuagint)

Hebrews 7:21b (Stephanus Textus Receptus)

ὤμοσεν κύριος καὶ οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ὤμοσεν κύριος καὶ οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται σὺ εἶ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδεκ ωμοσεν κυριος και ου μεταμεληθησεται συ ιερευς εις τον αιωνα κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ

The writer of Hebrews continued (Hebrews 7:23-28):

And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office, but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever.  So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them.  For it[14] is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens.  He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all.  For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness, but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect (τετελειωμένον, another form of τελειόω) forever.

Solomon prayed to yehôvâh at the dedication of the temple, and yehôvâh appeared to him and answered his prayer.

1 Kings 8:27-29 (Tanakh)

1 Kings 9:3-5 (Tanakh)

But will God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?  Yet have thou respect unto the prayer of thy servant, and to his supplication, O LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) my God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהי), to hearken unto the cry and to the prayer, which thy servant prayeth before thee to day: That thine eyes may be open toward this house night and day, even toward the place of which thou hast said, My name shall be there: that thou mayest hearken unto the prayer which thy servant shall make toward this place. And the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) said unto him, I have heard thy prayer and thy supplication, that thou hast made before me: I have hallowed (qâdash, הקדשתי; Septuagint: ἡγίακα, another form of ἁγιάζω) this house, which thou hast built, to put my name there for ever; and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually.  And if thou wilt walk before me, as David thy father walked (Psalm 51:10, 11), in integrity of heart, and in uprightness, to do according to all that I have commanded thee, and wilt keep my statutes and my judgments: Then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I promised to David thy father, saying, There shall not fail (Luke 1:30-33) thee a man upon the throne of Israel.

Isaiah prophesied, if not a change in the law, a change in attitude toward the temple and its sacrifices.

Isaiah 66:1-4 (Tanakh)

Isaiah 66:1-4 (KJV)

Thus saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest? Thus saith the LORD, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest?
For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה): but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word. For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.
He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog’s neck; he that offereth an oblation, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol.  Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth (châphêts, חפצה) in their abominations. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog’s neck; he that offereth an oblation, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol.  Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations.
I also will choose their delusions, and will bring their fears upon them; because when I called, none did answer; when I spake, they did not hear: but they did evil before mine eyes, and chose that in which I delighted (châphêts, חפצתי) not. I also will choose their delusions, and will bring their fears upon them; because when I called, none did answer; when I spake, they did not hear: but they did evil before mine eyes, and chose that in which I delighted not.

Here the sacrifices prescribed by law were called their own ways (derek, בדרכיהם) and their abominations (shiqqûts, ובשקוציהם).  In fact, their soul delighteth (châphêts, חפצה) in their abominations.  They chose that in which I delighted (châphêts, חפצתי) not, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה).  This led me directly back to David (Psalm 51:16, 17 Tanakh):

For thou desirest (châphêts, תחפץ; Septuagint: ἠθέλησας, a form of θέλω) not sacrifice; else would I give it: thou delightest (râtsâh, תרצה; Septuagint: εὐδοκήσεις; a form of εὐδοκέω) not in burnt offering.  The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.

A table of Isaiah 66:1-4 in Greek from the Septuagint and an English translation follows:

Isaiah 66:1, 2, 3, 4 (Septuagint)

Isaiah 66:1-4 (NETS)

οὕτως λέγει κύριος ὁ οὐρανός μοι θρόνος ἡ δὲ γῆ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν μου ποῖον οἶκον οἰκοδομήσετέ μοι ἢ ποῖος τόπος τῆς καταπαύσεώς μου Thus says the Lord: Heaven is my throne, and the earth is the footstool of my feet; what kind of house will you build for me, or of what kind will be the place of my rest?
πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα ἐποίησεν ἡ χείρ μου καὶ ἔστιν ἐμὰ πάντα ταῦτα λέγει κύριος καὶ ἐπὶ τίνα ἐπιβλέψω ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἐπὶ τὸν ταπεινὸν καὶ ἡσύχιον καὶ τρέμοντα τοὺς λόγους μου For all these things my hand has made, and all these things are mine, says the Lord.  And to whom will I look but to the one who is humble and quiet and trembles at my words?
ὁ δὲ ἄνομος ὁ θύων μοι μόσχον ὡς ὁ ἀποκτέννων κύνα ὁ δὲ ἀναφέρων σεμίδαλιν ὡς αἷμα ὕειον ὁ διδοὺς λίβανον εἰς μνημόσυνον ὡς βλάσφημος καὶ οὗτοι ἐξελέξαντο τὰς ὁδοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ βδελύγματα αὐτῶν ἃ ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτῶν ἠθέλησεν (another form of θέλω) But the lawless who sacrifices to me a calf is like one who kills a dog, and he who offers fine flour, like one who offers swine’s blood; he who has given frankincense for a memorial, like a blasphemer.  And these have chosen their own ways and their abominations, which their soul wanted;
κἀγὼ ἐκλέξομαι τὰ ἐμπαίγματα αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀνταποδώσω αὐτοῖς ὅτι ἐκάλεσα αὐτοὺς καὶ οὐχ ὑπήκουσάν μου ἐλάλησα καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν καὶ ἐποίησαν τὸ πονηρὸν ἐναντίον μου καὶ ἃ οὐκ ἐβουλόμην (a form of βούλομαι) ἐξελέξαντο So I will choose mockeries for them and repay them their sins, because I called them and they did not answer me, but they did what was evil in my sight and chose the things I did not desire.

Here “the lawless” (ἄνομος) who bring the sacrifices prescribed by law “have chosen their own ways (ὁδοὺς, a form of ὁδός)” and “their abominations (βδελύγματα, a form of βδέλυγμα).”  The rabbis made some connection to David’s psalm.  They translated חפצה (châphêts) ἠθέλησεν (another form of θέλω) in, “And these have chosen their own ways and their abominations, which their soul wanted (ἠθέλησεν).”  And they translated תחפץ (châphêts) ἠθέλησας (also a form of θέλω) in, For thou desirest (ἠθέλησας) not sacrifice.  But they translated חפצתי (châphêts) ἐβουλόμην (a form of βούλομαι) when the Holy Spirit’s point was that they “chose the things I (yehôvâh) did not desire (ἐβουλόμην),” obscuring that connection at a salient point.

The NET translators didn’t add “the lawless” to the text, but embedded it by turning similes into additive descriptions: The one who slaughters a bull also strikes down a man; the one who sacrifices a lamb also breaks a dog’s neck; the one who presents an offering includes pig’s blood with it; the one who offers incense also praises an idolThey have decided to behave this way; they enjoy these disgusting practices.[15]

Perhaps this is not so surprising.  The rebuilding of the temple and the reinstitution of its sacrifices are major tenets of our eschatology.  David prophesied a time when אלהים (ʼĕlôhı̂ym) would do good (yâṭab, היטיבה; Septuagint: ἀγάθυνον, a form of ἀγαθύνω) unto Zion: Do good in thy good pleasure (râtsôn, ברצונך; Septuagint: εὐδοκίᾳ) unto Zion: build thou the walls of Jerusalem.[16]

At that time אלהים (ʼĕlôhı̂ym) will be pleased with sacrifices (zebach, זבחי; Septuagint: θυσίαν, a form of θυσία) of righteousness (tsedeq, צדק; Septuagint: δικαιοσύνης, a form of δικαιοσύνη), even burnt offering (ʽôlâh, עולה; Septuagint: ἀναφορὰν, a form of ἀναφορά) and whole burnt offering (kâlı̂yl, וכליל; Septuagint: ὁλοκαυτώματα, a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα):

Then shalt thou be pleased (châphêts, חפצה; Septuagint: εὐδοκήσεις, a form of εὐδοκέω) with the sacrifices of righteousness, with burnt offering and whole burnt offering: then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar.[17]

I seriously doubt however that sacrifices of righteousness can be offered by any who reject the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.[18]  Those who would offer such sacrifices are ignoring the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking instead to establish their own righteousness,[19] their own ways, by their abominations.  Perhaps the translators of the Septuagint meant that a priest should not be lawless but maintain his own righteousness derived from the law[20]

Should a priest—consecrated with special clothes, fancy adornments and anointing oil, his atonement accomplished through a sin offering bull offered on an altar consecrated by the bull’s blood, the gift (offering made by fire) of a burnt offering ram, being sprinkled in the blood of a second ram of ordination, standing in his own righteousness derived from his own adherence to the law but without the righteousness from God that is in fact based on Christ’s faithfulness[21]—dare to offer Him the blood of bulls and goats?  He does away (ἀναιρεῖ, a form of ἀναιρέω) with the first, Jesus taught his disciples, to establish the second.[22]

Hear Jesus’ teaching through the writer of Hebrews (Hebrews 10:28-31 NET):

Someone who rejected the law of Moses[23] was put to death without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses.  How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for the Son of God, and profanes the blood of the covenant that made him holy, and insults the Spirit of grace?  For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,”[24] and again, “The Lord will judge his people.”  It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took each of them his censer, and put fire therein, and laid incense thereon, and offered strange fire before HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה), which He had not commanded them.  And there came forth fire from before HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה), and devoured them, and they died before HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה).  Then Moses said unto Aaron: ‘This is it that HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) spoke, saying: Through them that are nigh unto Me I will be sanctified (qâdash, אקדש; Septuagint: ἁγιασθήσομαι, a form of ἁγιάζω), and before all the people I will be glorified.’  And Aaron held his peace.[25]

Again, Jesus said:

Matthew 23:37-39 (NET)

Luke 13:34, 35 (NET)

“O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill[26] the prophets and stone those who are sent to you!  How often I have longed to gather your children together as a hen gathers her[27] chicks under her wings, but you would have none of it!  Look, your house is left to you desolate!  For I tell you, you will not see me from now until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you!  How often I have longed to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you would have none of it!  Look, your house is forsaken![28]  And I tell you,[29] you will not see me until[30] you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’”

Tables of Hebrews 7:11; 6:18; 7:14; 7:16, 17; 7:21, 22; 7:26; 10:28; 10:30; Matthew 23:37 and Luke 13:35 comparing the NET and KJV follow.

Hebrews 7:11 (NET)

Hebrews 7:11 (KJV)

So if perfection had in fact been possible through the Levitical priesthood – for on that basis the people received the law – what further need would there have been for another priest to arise, said to be in the order of Melchizedek and not in Aaron’s order? If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron?
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Εἰ μὲν οὖν τελείωσις διὰ τῆς Λευιτικῆς ἱερωσύνης ἦν, ὁ λαὸς γὰρ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς νενομοθέτηται, τίς ἔτι χρεία κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ ἕτερον ἀνίστασθαι ἱερέα καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρὼν λέγεσθαι ει μεν ουν τελειωσις δια της λευιτικης ιερωσυνης ην ο λαος γαρ επ αυτη νενομοθετητο τις ετι χρεια κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ ετερον ανιστασθαι ιερεα και ου κατα την ταξιν ααρων λεγεσθαι ει μεν ουν τελειωσις δια της λευιτικης ιερωσυνης ην ο λαος γαρ επ αυτη νενομοθετητο τις ετι χρεια κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ ετερον ανιστασθαι ιερεα και ου κατα την ταξιν ααρων λεγεσθαι
Hebrews 6:18 (NET)

Hebrews 6:18 (KJV)

so that we who have found refuge in him may find strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us through two unchangeable things, since it is impossible for God to lie. That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us:

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἵνα διὰ δύο πραγμάτων ἀμεταθέτων, ἐν οἷς ἀδύνατον ψεύσασθαι [τὸν] θεόν, ἰσχυρὰν παράκλησιν ἔχωμεν οἱ καταφυγόντες κρατῆσαι τῆς προκειμένης ἐλπίδος ινα δια δυο πραγματων αμεταθετων εν οις αδυνατον ψευσασθαι θεον ισχυραν παρακλησιν εχωμεν οι καταφυγοντες κρατησαι της προκειμενης ελπιδος ινα δια δυο πραγματων αμεταθετων εν οις αδυνατον ψευσασθαι θεον ισχυραν παρακλησιν εχωμεν οι καταφυγοντες κρατησαι της προκειμενης ελπιδος

Hebrews 7:14 (NET)

Hebrews 7:14 (KJV)

For it is clear that our Lord is descended from Judah, yet Moses said nothing about priests in connection with that tribe. For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

πρόδηλον γὰρ ὅτι ἐξ Ἰούδα ἀνατέταλκεν ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν, εἰς ἣν φυλὴν περὶ ἱερέων οὐδὲν Μωϋσῆς ἐλάλησεν προδηλον γαρ οτι εξ ιουδα ανατεταλκεν ο κυριος ημων εις ην φυλην ουδεν περι ιερωσυνης μωσης ελαλησεν προδηλον γαρ οτι εξ ιουδα ανατεταλκεν ο κυριος ημων εις ην φυλην ουδεν περι ιερωσυνης μωυσης ελαλησεν
Hebrews 7:16, 17 (NET)

Hebrews 7:16, 17 (KJV)

who has become a priest not by a legal regulation about physical descent but by the power of an indestructible life. Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὃς οὐ κατὰ νόμον ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης γέγονεν ἀλλὰ κατὰ δύναμιν ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου ος ου κατα νομον εντολης σαρκικης γεγονεν αλλα κατα δυναμιν ζωης ακαταλυτου ος ου κατα νομον εντολης σαρκικης γεγονεν αλλα κατα δυναμιν ζωης ακαταλυτου
For here is the testimony about him: “You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.” For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

μαρτυρεῖται γὰρ ὅτι σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ μαρτυρει γαρ οτι συ ιερευς εις τον αιωνα κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ μαρτυρει γαρ οτι συ ιερευς εις τον αιωνα κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ

Hebrews 7:21, 22 (NET)

Hebrews 7:21, 22 (KJV)

but Jesus did so with a sworn affirmation by the one who said to him, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind, ‘You are a priest forever’” – For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὁ δὲ μετὰ ὁρκωμοσίας διὰ τοῦ λέγοντος πρὸς αὐτόν ὤμοσεν κύριος καὶ οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα οι μεν γαρ χωρις ορκωμοσιας εισιν ιερεις γεγονοτες ο δε μετα ορκωμοσιας δια του λεγοντος προς αυτον ωμοσεν κυριος και ου μεταμεληθησεται συ ιερευς εις τον αιωνα κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ ο δε μετα ορκωμοσιας δια του λεγοντος προς αυτον ωμοσεν κυριος και ου μεταμεληθησεται συ ιερευς εις τον αιωνα κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ
accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

κατὰ τοσοῦτο [καὶ] κρείττονος διαθήκης γέγονεν ἔγγυος Ἰησοῦς κατα τοσουτον κρειττονος διαθηκης γεγονεν εγγυος ιησους κατα τοσουτον κρειττονος διαθηκης γεγονεν εγγυος ιησους
Hebrews 7:26 (NET)

Hebrews 7:26 (KJV)

For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Τοιοῦτος γὰρ ἡμῖν |καὶ| ἔπρεπεν ἀρχιερεύς, ὅσιος ἄκακος ἀμίαντος, κεχωρισμένος ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ ὑψηλότερος τῶν οὐρανῶν γενόμενος τοιουτος γαρ ημιν επρεπεν αρχιερευς οσιος ακακος αμιαντος κεχωρισμενος απο των αμαρτωλων και υψηλοτερος των ουρανων γενομενος τοιουτος γαρ ημιν επρεπεν αρχιερευς οσιος ακακος αμιαντος κεχωρισμενος απο των αμαρτωλων και υψηλοτερος των ουρανων γενομενος
Hebrews 10:28 (NET)

Hebrews 10:28 (KJV)

Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. He that despised Moses’ law died without mercy under two or three witnesses:

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀθετήσας τις νόμον Μωϋσέως χωρὶς οἰκτιρμῶν ἐπὶ δυσὶν ἢ τρισὶν μάρτυσιν ἀποθνῄσκει αθετησας τις νομον μωσεως χωρις οικτιρμων επι δυσιν η τρισιν μαρτυσιν αποθνησκει αθετησας τις νομον μωυσεως χωρις οικτιρμων επι δυσιν η τρισιν μαρτυσιν αποθνησκει
Hebrews 10:30 (NET)

Hebrews 10:30 (KJV)

For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord.  And again, The Lord shall judge his people.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

οἴδαμεν γὰρ τὸν εἰπόντα ἐμοὶ ἐκδίκησις, ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω. καὶ πάλιν κρινεῖ κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ οιδαμεν γαρ τον ειποντα εμοι εκδικησις εγω ανταποδωσω λεγει κυριος και παλιν κυριος κρινει τον λαον αυτου οιδαμεν γαρ τον ειποντα εμοι εκδικησις εγω ανταποδωσω λεγει κυριος και παλιν κυριος κρινει τον λαον αυτου
Matthew 23:37 (NET)

Matthew 23:37 (KJV)

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you!  How often I have longed to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you would have none of it! O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Ἰερουσαλὴμ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἡ ἀποκτείνουσα τοὺς προφήτας καὶ λιθοβολοῦσα τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους πρὸς αὐτήν, ποσάκις ἠθέλησα ἐπισυναγαγεῖν τὰ τέκνα σου, ὃν τρόπον ὄρνις ἐπισυνάγει τὰ νοσσία |αὐτῆς| ὑπὸ τὰς πτέρυγας, καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε ιερουσαλημ ιερουσαλημ η αποκτεινουσα τους προφητας και λιθοβολουσα τους απεσταλμενους προς αυτην ποσακις ηθελησα επισυναγαγειν τα τεκνα σου ον τροπον επισυναγει ορνις τα νοσσια εαυτης υπο τας πτερυγας και ουκ ηθελησατε ιερουσαλημ ιερουσαλημ η αποκτενουσα τους προφητας και λιθοβολουσα τους απεσταλμενους προς αυτην ποσακις ηθελησα επισυναγαγειν τα τεκνα σου ον τροπον επισυναγει ορνις τα νοσσια εαυτης υπο τας πτερυγας και ουκ ηθελησατε
Luke 13:35 (NET)

Luke 13:35 (KJV)

Look, your house is forsaken!  And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἰδοὺ ἀφίεται ὑμῖν ὁ οἶκος ὑμῶν. λέγω [δὲ] ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ ἴδητε με ἕως [ἥξει ὅτε] εἴπητε· εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου ιδου αφιεται υμιν ο οικος υμων ερημος αμην δε λεγω υμιν οτι ου μη με ιδητε εως αν ηξη οτε ειπητε ευλογημενος ο ερχομενος εν ονοματι κυριου ιδου αφιεται υμιν ο οικος υμων ερημος λεγω δε υμιν οτι ου μη με ιδητε εως αν ηξει οτε ειπητε ευλογημενος ο ερχομενος εν ονοματι κυριου

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Atonement, Part 5; Atonement, Part 6

[4] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had αὐτῆς here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αυτη.

[5] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had νενομοθέτηται here, a perfect passive indicative 3rd person singular form, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had νενομοθετητο, the pluperfect passive indicative 3rd person singular form.

[6] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had the article τὸν preceding God.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[7] Hebrews 7:1-3 (NET)

[8] In the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text Moses was spelled Μωϋσῆς, and μωσης in the Stephanus Textus Receptus.

[9] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἱερέων here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ιερωσυνης (KJV: priesthood).

[10] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had σαρκίνης here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had σαρκικης (KJV: carnal).

[11] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had οἱ μὲν γὰρ χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας εἰσὶν ἱερεῖς γεγονότες (KJV: For those priests were made without an oath) at the beginning of verse 21.

[12] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had κατα την ταξιν μελχισεδεκ (KJV: after the order of Melchisedec) here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[13] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had τοσοῦτο here followed by the conjunction καὶ.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had another neuter form τοσουτον but no καὶ.

[14] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had the conjunction καὶ preceding the verb translated it is indeed fitting.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[15] Isaiah 66:3a (NET)

[16] Psalm 51:18 (Tanakh)

[17] Psalm 51:19 (Tanakh)

[18] Hebrews 10:10b (NET) Table

[19] Romans 10:3a (NET)

[20] Philippians 3:9a (NET)

[21] Philippians 3:9b (NET)

[22] Hebrews 10:9b (NET)

[23] In the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text Moses was spelled Μωϋσέως, and μωσεως in the Stephanus Textus Receptus.

[24] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had λεγει κυριος (KJV: saith the Lord) here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[25] Leviticus 10:1-3 (Tanakh)

[26] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Stephanus Textus Receptus had ἀποκτείνουσα here, where the Byzantine Majority Text had αποκτενουσα.

[27] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had αὐτῆς here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εαυτης.

[28] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ερημος at the end of this clause (KJV: your house is left unto you desolate).  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[29] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had αμην (KJV: verily) at the beginning of this phrase.  The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text did not.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had οτι here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[30] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ἕως αν here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had simply ἕως.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ηξη ὅτε after (KJV: the time come when).  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἥξει ὅτε but it was not translated in the NET.

Atonement, Part 7

This is a continuation of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  The atonement of Aaron and his sons continued:

Exodus 29:19-21 (NET)

Leviticus 8:22-24, 30 (NET)

You are to take the second ram, and Aaron and his sons are to lay their hands on the ram’s head, Then he presented the second ram, the ram of ordination (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις), and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram
and you are to kill the ram and take some of its blood and put it on the tip of the right ear of Aaron, on the tip of the right ear of his sons, on the thumb of their right hand, and on the big toe of their right foot, and then splash the blood all around on the altar. and he slaughtered it.  Moses then took some of its blood and put it on Aaron’s right earlobe, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot.
Next he brought Aaron’s sons forward, and Moses put some of the blood on their right earlobes, on their right thumbs, and on the big toes of their right feet, and Moses splashed the rest of the blood against the altar’s sides.
You are to take some of the blood that is on the altar and some of the anointing oil and sprinkle it on Aaron, on his garments, on his sons, and on his sons’ garments with him, so that he may be holy (qâdash, וקדש; Septuagint: ἁγιασθήσεται, another form of ἁγιάζω), he and his garments along with his sons and his sons’ garments. Then Moses took some of the anointing oil and some of the blood which was on the altar and sprinkled it on Aaron and his garments, and on his sons and his sons’ garments with him.  So he consecrated (qâdash, ויקדש; Septuagint: ἡγίασεν, another form of ἁγιάζω) Aaron, his garments, and his sons and his sons’ garments with him.

I plan to reserve any further consideration of forms of ἁγιάζω for another series of essays.  The ram of ordination (NETS: “ram of validation”), המלאים (millûʼ), translated τελειώσεως (a form of τελείωσις) in the Septuagint, is another matter.  So if perfection (τελείωσις) had in fact been possible through the Levitical priesthood, Jesus taught his disciples, for on that basis the people received the law – what further need would there have been for another priest to arise, said to be in the order of Melchizedek and not in Aaron’s order?[3]

If Aaron and his sons were “validated” by a ram of ordination, how was the high priest (ἀρχιερέα, a form of ἀρχιερεύς) of the new covenant (διαθήκην καινήν) perfectedDuring his earthly life Christ offered both requests and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able[4] to save him from death and he was heard because of his devotion (εὐλαβείας, a form of εὐλάβεια).  Although he was a son, he learned obedience through the things he suffered.  And by being perfected in this way, he became the source (αἴτιος) of eternal salvation to all who obey him, and he was designated (προσαγορευθεὶς, a form of προσαγορεύω) by God as high priest in the order of Melchizedek.[5]

The Greek word translated perfected was τελειωθεὶς (a form of τελειόω), the verb from which the noun τελείωσις was derived.  The Greek word translated suffered was ἔπαθεν (a form of πάσχω).  Contrary to my customary practice I’ll begin the investigation of what Jesus suffered with its negation ἔπαθεν οὐδὲν because it offers a concise vignette of the religious mind (Acts 28:3-6 NET):

When Paul had gathered a[6] bundle of brushwood and was putting it on the fire, a viper came out[7] because of[8] the heat and fastened itself on his hand.  When the local people saw the creature hanging from Paul’s hand, they said to one another, “No doubt this man is a murderer!  Although he has escaped from the sea, Justice herself has not allowed him to live!”  However, Paul shook the creature off into the fire and suffered (ἔπαθεν, a form of πάσχω) no (οὐδὲν, a form of οὐδείς) harm.  But they were expecting that he was going to swell up or suddenly drop dead.  So after they had waited a long time and had seen nothing unusual happen to him, they changed their minds and said he was a god.

Admittedly, this was the pagan religious mind.  In fact, sophisticated Greek pagans may have thought that these local people (βάρβαροι, a form of βάρβαρος; i.e., “barbarians”) were beneath them.  Still, Isaiah prophesied that Israel would share part of this same religious mind when it came to the Messiah: Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.[9]  The synoptic Gospel narratives bear this out:

Matthew 27:39-44 (NET) Mark 15:29-32 (NET)

Luke 23:35-39 (NET)

Those who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads and saying, “You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself!  If you are God’s Son, come down from the cross!”  In the same way even[10] the chief priests – together with the experts in the law and elders – were mocking him: “He saved others, but he cannot save himself!  He[11] is the king of Israel!  If he comes down now from the cross, we will believe in[12] him![13]  He trusts in God – let God, if he wants to, deliver him now because he said, ‘I am God’s Son’!”  The robbers who were crucified with[14] him also spoke abusively to him.[15] Those who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads and saying, “Aha! You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself and come down[16] from the cross!”  In the same way even[17] the chief priests – together with the experts in the law – were mocking him among themselves: “He saved others, but he cannot save himself!  Let the Christ, the king of Israel,[18] come down from the cross now, that we may see and believe!”[19]  Those who were crucified with[20] him also spoke abusively to him. The people also stood there watching, but the rulers[21] ridiculed him, saying, “He saved others.  Let him save himself if he is the Christ of God, his chosen one!”  The soldiers also mocked[22] him, coming up and[23] offering him sour wine, and saying, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself!”  There was also an inscription[24] over him,[25] “This is[26] the king of the Jews.”  One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t[27] you the Christ?  Save yourself and us!”[28]

Jesus’ disconcerting answer—How then would the scriptures that say it must happen this way be fulfilled?[29]—offered to his disciples was not repeated here.  Even after his resurrection most in Israel were still too hardened (Romans 11:25-32) to regard Jesus as yehôvâh (Zechariah 12:7-10), the Son of God (Romans 1:2-4) or even the Messiah (Isaiah 53:7-12).

The bodies of those animals whose blood the high priest brings into the sanctuary as an offering for sin are burned outside the camp.  Therefore, to sanctify the people by his own blood, Jesus also suffered (ἔπαθεν, a form of πάσχω) outside the camp.  We must go out to him, then, outside the camp, bearing the abuse (ὀνειδισμὸν, a form of ὀνειδισμός) he experienced.  For here we have no lasting city (Hebrews 11:8-10), but we seek the city that is to come.  Through him then let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of our lips, acknowledging his name.  And do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for God is pleased with such sacrifices.[30]

Peter wrote (1 Peter 2:13-25; 3:13-22; 4:12-19 NET):

Be subject[31] to every human institution for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme or to governors as those he commissions to punish[32] wrongdoers and praise those who do good.  For God wants you to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good.  Live as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves.  Honor all people, love[33] the family of believers, fear God, honor the king.

Slaves, be subject to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse.  For this finds God’s favor, if because of conscience toward God someone endures hardships in suffering (πάσχων, another form of πάσχω) unjustly.  For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it?  But if you do good and suffer (πάσχοντες, another form of πάσχω) and so endure, this finds favor with God.  For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered (ἔπαθεν, a form of πάσχω) for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps.  He committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth.  When he was maligned, he did not answer back; when he suffered (πάσχων, another form of πάσχω), he threatened no retaliation, but committed himself to God who judges justly.  He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning and live for righteousness.  By his[34] wounds you were healed.  For you were going astray[35] like sheep but[36] now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls…

For who is going to harm you if you are devoted[37] to what is good?  But in fact, if you happen to suffer (πάσχοιτε, another form of πάσχω) for doing what is right, you are blessed.  But do not be terrified of them or be shaken.  But set Christ[38] apart as Lord in your hearts and[39] always be ready to give an answer to anyone who asks about the hope you possess.  Yet[40] do it with courtesy and respect,[41] keeping a good conscience, so that those who slander your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame when they accuse[42] you.  For it is better to suffer (πάσχειν, another form of πάσχω) for doing good, if God wills[43] it, than for doing evil.

Because Christ also suffered (ἔπαθεν, a form of πάσχω) once for sins, the just for the unjust, to bring you[44] to God, by being put to death in the flesh but by being made alive in the spirit.  In it he went and preached to the spirits in prison, after[45] they were disobedient long ago when God patiently waited[46] in the days of Noah as an ark was being constructed.  In the ark a few,[47] that is eight souls, were delivered through water.  And this prefigured baptism, which now saves you[48] – not the washing off of physical dirt but the pledge of a good conscience to God – through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who went into heaven and is at the right hand of God with angels and authorities and powers subject to him…

Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you.  But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings (παθήμασιν, a form of πάθημα) of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad.  If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you.[49]  But let none of you suffer (πασχέτω, another form of πάσχω) as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker.[50]  But if you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but glorify God that you bear such a name.[51]  For it is time for judgment to begin, starting with the house of God.  And if it starts with us, what will be the fate of those who are disobedient to the gospel of God?  And if the righteous are barely saved, what will become of the ungodly and sinners?  So then let those who suffer (πάσχοντες, another form of πάσχω) according to the will of God entrust their[52] souls to a faithful[53] Creator as they do good.

In a world populated by sinful people there is no shortage of injustices and indignities.  Sinful people do not love their neighbors as themselves.  Thankfully, most are petty injustices and petty indignities because most of us are petty people, seeking only to live out our lives in relative peace and security.  Very few have the ambition to dominate (Matthew 20:25-28) others on a grand scale, and even fewer are effectual enough as people to pull it off.

When the One who calls us by his grace is pleased to reveal his Son in us, we trust in Jesus, are born from above, children of God, filled with and led by his Holy Spirit (Numbers 11:29).  Then God’s own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control strives within us to curtail the petty injustices and indignities we inflict on others.  How are we perfected?  We greet others’ petty injustices and indignities with the love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control that wells up within us like a fountain of water springing up to eternal life.[54]  What if the injustice or indignity we face is not so petty?

Think of him who endured such opposition against himself by sinners, so that you may not grow weary in your souls and give up.[55]  Jesus hung naked on a cross, obedient to death.  He didn’t have to.  He could’ve come down any time He wanted, any time it got too much, any time He had had enough of sinners’ abuse.  How then would the scriptures that say it must happen this way be fulfilled? He asked Peter rhetorically.  And that response in word and deed (done in God) is the living image of loving the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.[56]

Each of us who who believes has Scripture to fulfill by the grace of God (Galatians 2:16-21 NET):

[W]e know that no one is justified by the works of the law but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.  And we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by the faithfulness of Christ and not by the works of the law, because[57] by the works of the law no one will be justified.  But if while seeking to be justified in Christ we ourselves have also been found to be sinners, is Christ then one who encourages sin?  Absolutely not!  But if I build up again those things I once destroyed, I demonstrate[58] that I am one who breaks God’s law.  For through the law I died to the law so that I may live to God.  I have been crucified with Christ, and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me.  So the life I now live in the body, I live because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.  I do not set aside God’s grace, because if righteousness could come through the law, then Christ died for nothing!

It bears mentioning in this #MeToo moment that I have no interest in, or intention to, silence women or inhibit them from reporting crimes.  I recall being so deeply moved by Abel Ferrara’s and Zoë Lund’s fictional nun in Bad Lieutenant because her confession was so unexpected in such a dark tale.  All political posturing aside, it is important that teenage boys understand that pinning a young woman to a bed to grope her is assault not love (1 Corinthians 13:4-13).

Tables of Acts 28:3; Matthew 27:41, 42; Matthew 27:44; Mark 15:30-32; Luke 23:35, 36; Luke 23:38, 39; 1 Peter 2:13, 14; 1 Peter 2:17; 1 Peter 2:24, 25; 1 Peter 3:13; 1 Peter 3:15-18; 1 Peter 3:20, 21; 1 Peter 4:14-16; 1 Peter 4:19; Galatians 2:16 and 18 in the NET and KJV follow.

Acts 28:3 (NET)

Acts 28:3 (KJV)

When Paul had gathered a bundle of brushwood and was putting it on the fire, a viper came out because of the heat and fastened itself on his hand. And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Συστρέψαντος δὲ τοῦ Παύλου φρυγάνων τι πλῆθος καὶ ἐπιθέντος ἐπὶ τὴν πυράν, ἔχιδνα ἀπὸ τῆς θέρμης ἐξελθοῦσα καθῆψεν τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ συστρεψαντος δε του παυλου φρυγανων πληθος και επιθεντος επι την πυραν εχιδνα εκ της θερμης εξελθουσα καθηψεν της χειρος αυτου συστρεψαντος δε του παυλου φρυγανων πληθος και επιθεντος επι την πυραν εχιδνα εκ της θερμης διεξελθουσα καθηψεν της χειρος αυτου
Matthew 27:41, 42 (NET)

Matthew 27:41, 42 (KJV)

In the same way even the chief priests – together with the experts in the law and elders – were mocking him: Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said,
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὁμοίως |καὶ| οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς ἐμπαίζοντες μετὰ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ πρεσβυτέρων ἔλεγον ομοιως δε και οι αρχιερεις εμπαιζοντες μετα των γραμματεων και πρεσβυτερων ελεγον ομοιως δε και οι αρχιερεις εμπαιζοντες μετα των γραμματεων και πρεσβυτερων και φαρισαιων ελεγον
“He saved others, but he cannot save himself!  He is the king of Israel!  If he comes down now from the cross, we will believe in him! He saved others; himself he cannot save.  If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται σῶσαι· βασιλεὺς Ἰσραήλ ἐστιν, καταβάτω νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ καὶ πιστεύσομεν ἐπ᾿ αὐτόν αλλους εσωσεν εαυτον ου δυναται σωσαι ει βασιλευς ισραηλ εστιν καταβατω νυν απο του σταυρου και πιστευσομεν αυτω αλλους εσωσεν εαυτον ου δυναται σωσαι ει βασιλευς ισραηλ εστιν καταβατω νυν απο του σταυρου και πιστευσομεν επ αυτω
Matthew 27:44 (NET)

Matthew 27:44 (KJV)

The robbers who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him. The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Τὸ δ᾿ αὐτὸ καὶ οἱ λῃσταὶ οἱ συσταυρωθέντες σὺν αὐτῷ ὠνείδιζον αὐτόν το δ αυτο και οι λησται οι συσταυρωθεντες αυτω ωνειδιζον αυτω το δ αυτο και οι λησται οι συσταυρωθεντες αυτω ωνειδιζον αυτον
Mark 15:30-32 (NET)

Mark 15:30-32 (KJV)

save yourself and come down from the cross!” Save thyself, and come down from the cross.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

σῶσον σεαυτὸν καταβὰς ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ σωσον σεαυτον και καταβα απο του σταυρου σωσον σεαυτον και καταβα απο του σταυρου
In the same way even the chief priests – together with the experts in the law – were mocking him among themselves: “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὁμοίως καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς ἐμπαίζοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους μετὰ τῶν γραμματέων ἔλεγον· ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται σῶσαι ομοιως δε και οι αρχιερεις εμπαιζοντες προς αλληλους μετα των γραμματεων ελεγον αλλους εσωσεν εαυτον ου δυναται σωσαι ομοιως και οι αρχιερεις εμπαιζοντες προς αλληλους μετα των γραμματεων ελεγον αλλους εσωσεν εαυτον ου δυναται σωσαι
Let the Christ, the king of Israel, come down from the cross now, that we may see and believe!”  Those who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him. Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe.  And they that were crucified with him reviled him.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὁ χριστὸς ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ καταβάτω νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ, ἵνα ἴδωμεν καὶ πιστεύσωμεν. καὶ οἱ συνεσταυρωμένοι σὺν αὐτῷ ὠνείδιζον αὐτόν ο χριστος ο βασιλευς του ισραηλ καταβατω νυν απο του σταυρου ινα ιδωμεν και πιστευσωμεν και οι συνεσταυρωμενοι αυτω ωνειδιζον αυτον ο χριστος ο βασιλευς του ισραηλ καταβατω νυν απο του σταυρου ινα ιδωμεν και πιστευσωμεν αυτω και οι συνεσταυρωμενοι αυτω ωνειδιζον αυτον
Luke 23:35, 36 (NET)

Luke 23:35, 36 (KJV)

The people also stood there watching, but the rulers ridiculed him, saying, “He saved others.  Let him save himself if he is the Christ of God, his chosen one!” And the people stood beholding.  And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Καὶ εἱστήκει ὁ λαὸς θεωρῶν. ἐξεμυκτήριζον δὲ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες λέγοντες· ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, σωσάτω ἑαυτόν, εἰ οὗτος ἐστιν ὁ χριστὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ὁ ἐκλεκτός και ειστηκει ο λαος θεωρων εξεμυκτηριζον δε και οι αρχοντες συν αυτοις λεγοντες αλλους εσωσεν σωσατω εαυτον ει ουτος εστιν ο χριστος ο του θεου εκλεκτος και ειστηκει ο λαος θεωρων εξεμυκτηριζον δε και οι αρχοντες συν αυτοις λεγοντες αλλους εσωσεν σωσατω εαυτον ει ουτος εστιν ο χριστος ο του θεου εκλεκτος
The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine, And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐνέπαιξαν δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται προσερχόμενοι, ὄξος προσφέροντες αὐτῷ ενεπαιζον δε αυτω και οι στρατιωται προσερχομενοι και οξος προσφεροντες αυτω ενεπαιζον δε αυτω και οι στρατιωται προσερχομενοι και οξος προσφεροντες αυτω
Luke 23:38, 39 (NET)

Luke 23:38, 39 (KJV)

There was also an inscription over him, “This is the king of the Jews.” And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἦν δὲ καὶ ἐπιγραφὴ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ· ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων οὗτος ην δε και επιγραφη γεγραμμενη επ αυτω γραμμασιν ελληνικοις και ρωμαικοις και εβραικοις ουτος εστιν ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων ην δε και επιγραφη γεγραμμενη επ αυτω γραμμασιν ελληνικοις και ρωμαικοις και εβραικοις ουτος εστιν ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων
One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t you the Christ?  Save yourself and us!” And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Εἷς δὲ τῶν κρεμασθέντων κακούργων ἐβλασφήμει αὐτὸν |λέγων|· οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός; σῶσον σεαυτὸν καὶ ἡμᾶς εις δε των κρεμασθεντων κακουργων εβλασφημει αυτον λεγων ει συ ει ο χριστος σωσον σεαυτον και ημας εις δε των κρεμασθεντων κακουργων εβλασφημει αυτον λεγων ει συ ει ο χριστος σωσον σεαυτον και ημας
1 Peter 2:13, 14 (NET)

1 Peter 2:13, 14 (KJV)

Be subject to every human institution for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme;

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

῾Υποτάγητε πάσῃ ἀνθρωπίνῃ κτίσει διὰ τὸν κύριον, εἴτε βασιλεῖ ὡς ὑπερέχοντι υποταγητε ουν παση ανθρωπινη κτισει δια τον κυριον ειτε βασιλει ως υπερεχοντι υποταγητε ουν παση ανθρωπινη κτισει δια τον κυριον ειτε βασιλει ως υπερεχοντι
or to governors as those he commissions to punish wrongdoers and praise those who do good. Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἴτε ἡγεμόσιν ὡς δι᾿ αὐτοῦ πεμπομένοις εἰς ἐκδίκησιν κακοποιῶν ἔπαινον δὲ ἀγαθοποιῶν ειτε ηγεμοσιν ως δι αυτου πεμπομενοις εις εκδικησιν μεν κακοποιων επαινον δε αγαθοποιων ειτε ηγεμοσιν ως δι αυτου πεμπομενοις εις εκδικησιν κακοποιων επαινον δε αγαθοποιων
1 Peter 2:17 (NET)

1 Peter 2:17 (KJV)

Honor all people, love the family of believers, fear God, honor the king. Honour all men.  Love the brotherhood.  Fear God.  Honour the king.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

πάντας τιμήσατε, τὴν ἀδελφότητα ἀγαπᾶτε, τὸν θεὸν φοβεῖσθε, τὸν βασιλέα τιμᾶτε παντας τιμησατε την αδελφοτητα αγαπατε τον θεον φοβεισθε τον βασιλεα τιματε παντας τιμησατε την αδελφοτητα αγαπησατε τον θεον φοβεισθε τον βασιλεα τιματε

1 Peter 2:24, 25 (NET)

1 Peter 2:24, 25 (KJV)

He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning and live for righteousness.  By his wounds you were healed. Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὃς τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν ἐν τῷ σώματι αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον, ἵνα ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἀπογενόμενοι τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζήσωμεν, οὗ τῷ μώλωπι ἰάθητε ος τας αμαρτιας ημων αυτος ανηνεγκεν εν τω σωματι αυτου επι το ξυλον ινα ταις αμαρτιαις απογενομενοι τη δικαιοσυνη ζησωμεν ου τω μωλωπι αυτου ιαθητε ος τας αμαρτιας ημων αυτος ανηνεγκεν εν τω σωματι αυτου επι το ξυλον ινα ταις αμαρτιαις απογενομενοι τη δικαιοσυνη ζησωμεν ου τω μωλωπι αυτου ιαθητε
For you were going astray like sheep but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls. For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἦτε γὰρ ὡς πρόβατα πλανώμενοι, ἀλλὰ ἐπεστράφητε νῦν ἐπὶ τὸν ποιμένα καὶ ἐπίσκοπον τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν ητε γαρ ως προβατα πλανωμενα αλλ επεστραφητε νυν επι τον ποιμενα και επισκοπον των ψυχων υμων ητε γαρ ως προβατα πλανωμενα αλλ επεστραφητε νυν επι τον ποιμενα και επισκοπον των ψυχων υμων

1 Peter 3:13 (NET)

1 Peter 3:13 (KJV)

For who is going to harm you if you are devoted to what is good? And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good?
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Καὶ τίς ὁ κακώσων ὑμᾶς ἐὰν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ζηλωταὶ γένησθε και τις ο κακωσων υμας εαν του αγαθου μιμηται γενησθε και τις ο κακωσων υμας εαν του αγαθου μιμηται γενησθε
1 Peter 3:15-18 (NET)

1 Peter 3:15-18 (KJV)

But set Christ apart as Lord in your hearts and always be ready to give an answer to anyone who asks about the hope you possess. But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

κύριον δὲ τὸν Χριστὸν ἁγιάσατε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν, ἕτοιμοι ἀεὶ πρὸς ἀπολογίαν παντὶ τῷ αἰτοῦντι ὑμᾶς λόγον περὶ τῆς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐλπίδος κυριον δε τον θεον αγιασατε εν ταις καρδιαις υμων ετοιμοι δε αει προς απολογιαν παντι τω αιτουντι υμας λογον περι της εν υμιν ελπιδος μετα πραυτητος και φοβου κυριον δε τον θεον αγιασατε εν ταις καρδιαις υμων ετοιμοι δε αει προς απολογιαν παντι τω αιτουντι υμας λογον περι της εν υμιν ελπιδος μετα πραυτητος και φοβου
Yet do it with courtesy and respect, keeping a good conscience, so that those who slander your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame when they accuse you. Having a good conscience; that, whereas they speak evil of you, as of evildoers, they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀλλὰ μετὰ πραΰτητος καὶ φόβου, συνείδησιν ἔχοντες ἀγαθήν, ἵνα ἐν ᾧ καταλαλεῖσθε καταισχυνθῶσιν οἱ ἐπηρεάζοντες ὑμῶν τὴν ἀγαθὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστροφήν συνειδησιν εχοντες αγαθην ινα εν ω καταλαλωσιν υμων ως κακοποιων καταισχυνθωσιν οι επηρεαζοντες υμων την αγαθην εν χριστω αναστροφην συνειδησιν εχοντες αγαθην ινα εν ω καταλαλωσιν υμων ως κακοποιων καταισχυνθωσιν οι επηρεαζοντες υμων την αγαθην εν χριστω αναστροφην
For it is better to suffer for doing good, if God wills it, than for doing evil. For it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing, than for evil doing.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

κρεῖττον γὰρ ἀγαθοποιοῦντας, εἰ θέλοι τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, πάσχειν ἢ κακοποιοῦντας κρειττον γαρ αγαθοποιουντας ει θελει το θελημα του θεου πασχειν η κακοποιουντας κρειττον γαρ αγαθοποιουντας ει θελοι το θελημα του θεου πασχειν η κακοποιουντας
Because Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, to bring you to God, by being put to death in the flesh but by being made alive in the spirit. For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὅτι καὶ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν |ἔπαθεν|, δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων, ἵνα ὑμᾶς προσαγάγῃ τῷ θεῷ θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι οτι και χριστος απαξ περι αμαρτιων επαθεν δικαιος υπερ αδικων ινα ημας προσαγαγη τω θεω θανατωθεις μεν σαρκι ζωοποιηθεις δε τω πνευματι οτι και χριστος απαξ περι αμαρτιων επαθεν δικαιος υπερ αδικων ινα υμας προσαγαγη τω θεω θανατωθεις μεν σαρκι ζωοποιηθεις δε πνευματι
1 Peter 3:20, 21 (NET)

1 Peter 3:20, 21 (KJV)

after they were disobedient long ago when God patiently waited in the days of Noah as an ark was being constructed.  In the ark a few, that is eight souls, were delivered through water. Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀπειθήσασιν ποτε ὅτε ἀπεξεδέχετο ἡ τοῦ θεοῦ μακροθυμία ἐν ἡμέραις Νῶε κατασκευαζομένης κιβωτοῦ εἰς ἣν ὀλίγοι, τοῦτ᾿ ἔστιν ὀκτὼ ψυχαί, διεσώθησαν δι᾿ ὕδατος απειθησασιν ποτε οτε απαξ εξεδεχετο η του θεου μακροθυμια εν ημεραις νωε κατασκευαζομενης κιβωτου εις ην ολιγαι τουτ εστιν οκτω ψυχαι διεσωθησαν δι υδατος απειθησασιν ποτε οτε απεξεδεχετο η του θεου μακροθυμια εν ημεραις νωε κατασκευαζομενης κιβωτου εις ην ολιγαι τουτ εστιν οκτω ψυχαι διεσωθησαν δι υδατος
And this prefigured baptism, which now saves you – not the washing off of physical dirt but the pledge of a good conscience to God – through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ:
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ὃ καὶ ὑμᾶς ἀντίτυπον νῦν σῴζει βάπτισμα, οὐ σαρκὸς ἀπόθεσις ρύπου ἀλλὰ συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς ἐπερώτημα εἰς θεόν, δι᾿ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ο και ημας αντιτυπον νυν σωζει βαπτισμα ου σαρκος αποθεσις ρυπου αλλα συνειδησεως αγαθης επερωτημα εις θεον δι αναστασεως ιησου χριστου ο αντιτυπον νυν και ημας σωζει βαπτισμα ου σαρκος αποθεσις ρυπου αλλα συνειδησεως αγαθης επερωτημα εις θεον δι αναστασεως ιησου χριστου
1 Peter 4:14-16 (NET)

1 Peter 4:14-16 (KJV)

If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰ ὀνειδίζεσθε ἐν ὀνόματι Χριστοῦ, μακάριοι, ὅτι τὸ τῆς δόξης καὶ τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πνεῦμα ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς ἀναπαύεται ει ονειδιζεσθε εν ονοματι χριστου μακαριοι οτι το της δοξης και το του θεου πνευμα εφ υμας αναπαυεται κατα μεν αυτους βλασφημειται κατα δε υμας δοξαζεται ει ονειδιζεσθε εν ονοματι χριστου μακαριοι οτι το της δοξης και το του θεου πνευμα εφ υμας αναπαυεται κατα μεν αυτους βλασφημειται κατα δε υμας δοξαζεται
But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker. But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men’s matters.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

μὴ γάρ τις ὑμῶν πασχέτω ὡς φονεὺς ἢ κλέπτης ἢ κακοποιὸς ἢ ὡς ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος μη γαρ τις υμων πασχετω ως φονευς η κλεπτης η κακοποιος η ως αλλοτριοεπισκοπος μη γαρ τις υμων πασχετω ως φονευς η κλεπτης η κακοποιος η ως αλλοτριοεπισκοπος
But if you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but glorify God that you bear such a name. Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰ δὲ ὡς Χριστιανός, μὴ αἰσχυνέσθω, δοξαζέτω δὲ τὸν θεὸν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ ει δε ως χριστιανος μη αισχυνεσθω δοξαζετω δε τον θεον εν τω μερει τουτω ει δε ως χριστιανος μη αισχυνεσθω δοξαζετω δε τον θεον εν τω μερει τουτω
1 Peter 4:19 (NET)

1 Peter 4:19 (KJV)

So then let those who suffer according to the will of God entrust their souls to a faithful Creator as they do good. Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὥστε καὶ οἱ πάσχοντες κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ πιστῷ κτίστῃ παρατιθέσθωσαν τὰς ψυχὰς |αὐτῶν| ἐν ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ ωστε και οι πασχοντες κατα το θελημα του θεου ως πιστω κτιστη παρατιθεσθωσαν τας ψυχας εαυτων εν αγαθοποιια ωστε και οι πασχοντες κατα το θελημα του θεου ως πιστω κτιστη παρατιθεσθωσαν τας ψυχας αυτων εν αγαθοποιια
Galatians 2:16 (NET)

Galatians 2:16 (KJV)

yet we know that no one is justified by the works of the law but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.  And we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by the faithfulness of Christ and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one will be justified. Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰδότες [δὲ] ὅτι οὐ δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος ἐξ ἔργων νόμου ἐὰν μὴ διὰ πίστεως |Ἰησοῦ| Χριστοῦ , καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐπιστεύσαμεν, ἵνα δικαιωθῶμεν ἐκ πίστεως Χριστοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, ὅτι ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σάρξ ειδοτες οτι ου δικαιουται ανθρωπος εξ εργων νομου εαν μη δια πιστεως ιησου χριστου και ημεις εις χριστον ιησουν επιστευσαμεν ινα δικαιωθωμεν εκ πιστεως χριστου και ουκ εξ εργων νομου διοτι ου δικαιωθησεται εξ εργων νομου πασα σαρξ ειδοτες οτι ου δικαιουται ανθρωπος εξ εργων νομου εαν μη δια πιστεως ιησου χριστου και ημεις εις χριστον ιησουν επιστευσαμεν ινα δικαιωθωμεν εκ πιστεως χριστου και ουκ εξ εργων νομου διοτι ου δικαιωθησεται εξ εργων νομου πασα σαρξ
Galatians 2:18 (NET)

Galatians 2:18 (KJV)

But if I build up again those things I once destroyed, I demonstrate that I am one who breaks God’s law. For if I build again the things which I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor.
Net Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰ γὰρ ἃ κατέλυσα ταῦτα πάλιν οἰκοδομῶ, παραβάτην ἐμαυτὸν συνιστάνω ει γαρ α κατελυσα ταυτα παλιν οικοδομω παραβατην εμαυτον συνιστημι ει γαρ α κατελυσα ταυτα παλιν οικοδομω παραβατην εμαυτον συνιστημι

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Hebrews 7:11 (NET)

[4] The Greek word translated the one who was able was δυνάμενον (a form of δύναμαι) the verb from which the noun δύναμις was derived.  I noticed that δύναμις was used most often in the New Testament for the power of God.  That has me primed to suspect that Jesus’ loud cries and tears (κραυγῆς ἰσχυρᾶς καὶ δακρύων) were nothing less than the inexpressible groanings (στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις) of the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:26, 27).

[5] Hebrews 5:7-10 (NET)

[6] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had τι here.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[7] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Stephanus Textus Receptus had ἐξελθοῦσα here, where the Byzantine Majority Text had διεξελθουσα.

[8] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἀπὸ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εκ.

[9] Isaiah 53:4 (NET)

[10] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δε και here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had simply και.

[11] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ει at the beginning of this clause.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[12] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ἐπ᾿ here.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus did not.

[13] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had αὐτόν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αυτω.

[14] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had σὺν here.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[15] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had αὐτόν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had αυτω.

[16] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had καταβὰς here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had καταβα.

[17] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had δε καὶ here, where the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had simply καὶ.

[18] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had του preceding Israel.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[19] The Byzantine Majority Text had αυτω following believe.  The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Stephanus Textus Receptus did not.

[20] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had σὺν here.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[21] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had σὺν αυτοις (KJV: with them), indicating that the people did not just stand there watching but ridiculed him as well.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not have σὺν αυτοις.

[22] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἐνέπαιξαν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ενεπαιζον.

[23] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had και at the beginning of this clause.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[24] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had γεγραμμενη (KJV: was written) following inscription.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[25] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had γραμμασιν ελληνικοις και ρωμαικοις και εβραικοις (KJV: in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew) following him.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[26] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εστιν here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[27] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had οὐχὶ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ει (KJV: If thou be Christ).

[28] Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End; Barbossa and Calypso clip.

[29] Matthew 26:54 (NET)

[30] Hebrews 13:11-16 (NET)

[31] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ουν following the verb.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[32] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had μεν following punish.  The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[33] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Stephanus Textus Receptus had ἀγαπᾶτε here, where the Byzantine Majority Text had αγαπησατε.

[34] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αυτου here.  The The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[35] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had πλανώμενοι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πλανωμενα.

[36] The NET parallel Greek text had ἀλλὰ here, where NA28, the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αλλ.

[37] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ζηλωταὶ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had μιμηται.

[38] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had Χριστὸν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had θεον (See NET note 24).

[39] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δε here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[40] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἀλλὰ here.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[41] The phrase μετὰ πραΰτητος καὶ φόβου (NET: with courtesy and respect) was at the end of verse 15 in the The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text.

[42] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had καταλαλεῖσθε here, a present passive indicative 2nd person plural form of καταλαλέω.  A note (28) in the NET acknowledged that it should have been translated “when you are spoken against.”  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had καταλαλωσιν, the present active subjunctive 3rd person plural form (KJV: they speak evil).  Then it was followed by υμων ως κακοποιων (KJV: of you, as of evildoers).  These words were not in the NET parallel Greek text or NA28.

[43] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had θέλοι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had θελει.

[44] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ὑμᾶς here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had ημας (KJV: us).

[45] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had απαξ (KJV: sometime) here.  The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[46] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ἀπεξεδέχετο here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had εξεδεχετο.

[47] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ὀλίγοι here, a nominative plural masculine form of ὀλίγος.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ολιγαι, the nominative plural feminine form.

[48] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ὑμᾶς here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ημας (KJV: us).

[49] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had κατα μεν αυτους βλασφημειται κατα δε υμας δοξαζεται (KJV: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified) here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[50] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος here where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αλλοτριοεπισκοπος.

[51] The NET parallel Greek text had ὀνόματι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus, Byzantine Majority Text and NA28 had μερει (KJV: on this behalf).

[52] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had αὐτῶν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had εαυτων.

[53] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ως preceding faithful (KJV: as unto a faithful Creator).  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[54] John 4:14b (NET)

[55] Hebrews 12:3 (NET) Table

[56] Mark 12:30 (NET) Table

[57] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ὅτι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had διοτι.

[58] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had συνιστάνω here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had συνιστημι (KJV: I make).  Both are considered equivalent forms of the same word in Strong’s Concordance and on Bible Hub.

Atonement, Part 6

This is a continuation of the previous essay which was a continuation of a consideration of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  I’ll begin with a review:

Atonement, Part 2

Now this is what you are to do for them to consecrate (qâdash, לקדש; Septuagint: ἁγιάσαι, another form of ἁγιάζω) them so that they may minister as my priests.[3]  This same word לקדש (qâdash) was translated to set them apart in Exodus 29:33 (NET) above, and ἁγιάσαι in the Septuagint.  In 1 Thessalonians 5:23 ἁγιάσαι was translated makeholy (NET) or sanctify (KJV).  There is an overview of what was required for this consecration, to set Aaron and his sons apart (Exodus 29:1b-3).

Atonement, Part 3

The Hebrew word translated to consecrate in Exodus 29:33 above was למלא (mâlêʼ).  In the Septuagint למלא (mâlêʼ) was translated τελειῶσαι τὰς χεῖρας, “validate their hands” in an English translation of the Septuagint (NETS).  And τελειῶσαι (a form of τελειόω) was translated to perfect in: For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship.[4]  Thus you are to consecrate (mâlêʼ, ומלאת; Septuagint: τελειώσεις τὰς χεῖρας; NETS: “validate their hands”) Aaron and his sons,[5] yehôvâh told Moses.  The ritual is recounted in a table of Exodus 29:4-9 and Leviticus 8:6-13.

Atonement, Part 4

The ritual of the sin offering (chaṭṭâʼâh, החטאת; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία) bull is recounted in a table of Exodus 29:10-14 and Leviticus 8:14-17.  The sin offering bull was eaten by no one.  The Hebrew word translated holy in for they are holy in Exodus 29:33 above was קדש (qôdesh).  In the Septuagint קדש (qôdesh) was translated ἅγια (a form of ἅγιος).  Tracking ἅγια into the New Testament led to the sin offering accomplished in heaven by Jesus the Christ, the high priest of the new covenant: Hebrews 9:11, 12, 24-28.

Atonement, Part 5

The ritual of the burnt offering (ʽôlâh, העלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαύτωμα) ram is recounted in a table of Exodus 29:15-18 and Leviticus 8:18-21.  The burnt offering ram was eaten by no one.  This led to a discussion between Jesus and one of the experts in the law (γραμματέων, a form of γραμματεύς) on the relative merits of burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτωμάτων, a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα), recounted in a table of Mark 12:28-34a.

The other occurrences of a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα in the New Testament are found in Hebrews 10:4-9 (NET):

For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins.  So when he came into the world, he said,

Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

Whole burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτώματα, another form of ὁλοκαύτωμα) and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

Then I said, Here I am: I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’”

When he says above, “Sacrifices[6] and offerings[7] and whole burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτώματα, another form of ὁλοκαύτωμα) and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” (which are offered according to the law), then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.”[8]  He does away with the first to establish the second.

The words highlighted in boldface were a quotation from, or an allusion to, Psalm 40:6-8.  Below are three examples of Psalm 40:6-8 translated from contemporary Hebrew.

Psalm 40:6-8 (Tanakh) Psalm 40:6-8 (KJV)

Psalm 40:6-8 (NET)

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened (kârâh, כרית): burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. Receiving sacrifices and offerings are not your primary concern.  You make that quite clear to me!  You do not ask for burnt sacrifices and sin offerings.
Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, Then I say, “Look!  I come!  What is written in the scroll pertains to me.
I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart. I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart. I want to do what pleases you, my God. Your law dominates my thoughts.”

Since the oldest extant Hebrew manuscript of the Old Testament dates from 920 – 930 and the oldest extant manuscript of the book of Hebrews in Greek dates from 175 – 225, it seems obvious that the Masoretes[9] transformed a prophecy about a body prepared for Christ into a clever insult about digging wax out of David’s ears.  The problem with that, however, is the Septuagint.  Well, it doesn’t have to be a problem, I suppose, not if I switch versions.

Hebrews 10:5b-7 (NET Parallel Greek)

Psalm 39:7-9a (Septuagint Elpenor)

θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι· ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ἐζήτησας
ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ εὐδόκησας
τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ, τοῦ ποιῆσαι ὁ θεὸς τὸ θέλημα σου τότε εἶπον· ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ
τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου, ὁ Θεός μου

Here, both the NET parallel Greek and the Septuagint agree on the word σῶμα (body).  But the oldest extant manuscripts of the Septuagint date from 350 – 450.  So, did the rabbis read a Hebrew word and translate it σῶμα or did believers prefer σῶμα and substitute it?  In one sense I have no objection to preferring the book of Hebrews and by faith, as it were, assuming σῶμα.  But that is exactly what I’ve accused the Masoretes of doing to the Hebrew text:[10]

…raised from infancy with the belief that Jesus was not, could not possibly be, the promised Messiah, and with no knowledge of deliberate textual corruptions, the Masoretes could have done this[11] [i.e., added vowel points] in good conscience.

The Blue Letter Bible version of the Septuagint I have been using (which agrees here with the Academic Bible [See Table1 below]) compares to the NET parallel Greek as follows:

Hebrews 10:5b-7 (NET Parallel Greek)

Psalm 40:6, 7, 8a (Septuagint BLB)

θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας ὠτία δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι ὁλοκαύτωμα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ᾔτησας
ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ εὐδόκησας
τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ, τοῦ ποιῆσαι ὁ θεὸς τὸ θέλημα σου τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ
τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου ὁ θεός μου

In this version the ears (ὠτία) were there already but the “digging” (kârâh, כרית) had become κατηρτίσω (you prepared).  I found an alternative explanation online at Michael S. Heiser.com in an article titled “The Function of Paronomasia in Hebrews 10:5–7” by Karen H. Jobes.

At first the philosophical bent of my mind clashed with her poetic soul.  Her idea that some anonymous author changed ὠτία (ears) to σῶμα (body) because it sounded better to first century ears was appalling.  But I softened some as she explained the meaning of this rhetorical technique in this particular context.

The most striking feature of this quotation from Psalm 40 is that it is attributed (improperly some would say) to the incarnate Jesus Christ: “Therefore, when Christ came into the world, he said … ”  It is as if Psalm 40 had never previously existed; as if these words originated in Christ’s mouth and not in the psalmist’s, some thousand years before.

The belief that all scripture is unified by divine inspiration could be used to explain this attribution.  For whatever David said in Psalms was really being said by God.  And because of the triune relationship of the God-head, whatever God says, Christ says.[12]

My own working hypothesis is that yehôvâh became Jesus: Now [yehôvâh] became flesh and took up residence among us.  We saw his glory – the glory of the one and only, full of grace and truth, who came from the Father.[13]  No one has ever seen God (e.g., the Father).[14]  And HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth (Numbers 12:5-8 Tanakh).

And He said: ‘Hear now My words: if there be a prophet among you, I HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) do make Myself known unto him in a vision (marʼâh, במראה; Septuagint: ὁράματι, a form of ὅραμα), I do speak with him in a dream (chălôm, בחלום; Septuagint: ὕπνῳ, a form of ὕπνος).  My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house; with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly (marʼeh, ומראה; Septuagint: εἴδει, a form of εἶδος), and not in dark speeches; and the similitude (temûnâh, ותמנת; Septuagint: δόξαν, a form of δόξα) of HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’

The only one,[15] himself God,[16] who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known[17] (e.g., in both Old and New Testaments).  He [yehôvâh] came to what was his own, but his own people did not receive him.[18]  For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance[19] be but life from the dead?  If the first portion of the dough offered is holy (ἁγία, a form of ἅγιος), then the whole batch is holy, and if the root is holy (ἁγία, a form of ἅγιος), so too are the branches.[20]  Ms. Jobes continued:

In Hebrews 10, then, the author’s lexical choice in substituting εὐδόκησας for ᾔτησας not only achieves phonetic assonance, but also fits well with the argument made in that chapter.  Sacrifice and offering were not God’s will, burnt offering and sin offering were not God’s good pleasure.  Though God had commanded them when in the past he “spoke to our forefathers through the prophets,” these were not the means through which God would redeem his people from sin.  The past-speaking of the old sacrificial system is superseded when God’s redemptive plan is revealed in Christ.

The clause containing substitutions of σω̂μα for ὠτία and the plural ὁλοκαυτώματα for the singular form is sandwiched between the inclusio formed by ἠθέλησας and εὐδόκησας in an a-b-b’-a’ pattern…

What is the point of these contrasted clauses?  According to the MT, David had “ears” to hear the word of the Lord.  The midrash of Ps 40:7 understands this verse in light of 1 Sam 15:22, “Hath the Lord as great delight in burnt-offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord?” (the verb is שׁמע, “hearing”).  The reference to David’s ears, which heard the voice of the Lord, is therefore to be understood as referring to David’s obedience to God.

W. C. Kaiser follows this midrashic understanding and also construes this idiom as referring to David’s—somewhat faltering—obedience.  Kaiser sees the substitution of σω̂μα for ὠτία as simply the whole being substituted for the part by the Greek translator in order to produce a culturally dynamic equivalent.  This would then mean that David and Christ were saying essentially the same thing.  But Christ’s obedience to God that abolished the old cultic sacrifices was not the same as David’s obedience to God as theocratic king.  It was not that Jesus lived his life in perfect obedience to God, but more specifically, it was the obedient sacrifice of his body in death that brought an end to animal sacrifice.  As the king of Israel, David could only imperfectly obey God, and his body could never be the once-for-all sacrifice for sin.  Therefore, it was uniquely appropriate for the author of Hebrews to substitute σω̂μα for ὠτία when he also put the words of Ps 40:6–8 in Christ’s mouth.

So when he came into the world, he said… may not be mystic poetry but straightforward reportage.  My own working hypothesis is that Hebrews was Jesus’ teaching between his resurrection and ascension, the teaching that caused Cleopas and his companion to exclaim, “Didn’t our hearts burn within us[21] while he was speaking with us on the road,[22] while he was explaining the scriptures to us?”[23]  I think it is entirely possible that the writer’s informants heard the resurrected Jesus explain this prophecy in exactly this way, and that his teaching was written down some time before Stephen was killed.  Ms. Jobes continued:

The displeasure of God with cultic offerings is contrasted with, “But a body you prepared for me.”  The argument of Hebrews 10 is that it was Jesus Christ’s body which was the sacrifice well-pleasing to God, not the many animal sacrifices endlessly repeated.  The lexical choice of σω̂μα δέ concurrently with the substitution of the plural form of ὁλοκαυτώματα achieves phonetic assonance and by this marked prominence the one body of Christ is contrasted with the many burnt offerings with which God was not pleased.  The rhetorical construction of paronomasia therefore reinforces the point of the argument made in Hebrews 10.

Regarding Hebrews as the teaching of the resurrected Christ, it matters less to me whether He quoted a lost manuscript of Psalm 40 or changed ὠτία (ears) to σῶμα (body) for his own teaching purposes.  Either way He has my attention focused on σῶμα.  Paul equated our old [human] (ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος) with the body of sin (τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας): We know that our old man was crucified with him so that the body of sin would no longer dominate us, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin.[24]

And you were at one time strangers and enemies in your minds as expressed through your evil deeds, Paul wrote believers in Colossae, but now he has reconciled you by his physical body (ἐν τῷ σώματι τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ; literally, “in the body of his flesh”) through death to present you holy, without blemish, and blameless before him – if indeed you remain in the faith, established and firm, without shifting from the hope of the gospel that you heard.[25]

But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of[26] sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness.  Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus[27] from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ[28] from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit[29] who lives[30] in you.[31]

The body of the old human does not exhaust the meaning of the body God the Father prepared for Jesus the Christ (Philippians 3:20, 21; 1 Corinthians 15:50-53; Ephesians 1:23 NET):

But our citizenship (πολίτευμα) is in heaven – and we also await a savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform these humble (ταπεινώσεως, a form of ταπείνωσις) bodies (σῶμα) of ours[32] into the likeness of his glorious body (σώματι, a form of σῶμα) by means of that power by which he is able to subject all things to himself.[33]

Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: Flesh and blood cannot[34] inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.  Listen, I will tell you a mystery: We[35] will not all sleep, but we will all be changed – in a moment, in the blinking of an eye, at the last trumpet.  For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.  For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality.

Now the church[36] is his body (σῶμα), the fullness of him who fills all[37] in all.

This mystery (Ephesians 5:31, 32), though well worth exploring, must wait for another essay.  A table comparing Psalm 40:6-8 in the Blue Letter Bible version and Academic Bible version of the Septuagint follows.  That is followed by tables of John 1:18; Romans 11:15; Luke 24:32; Romans 8:10, 11; Philippians 3:21; 1 Corinthians 15:50, 51 and Ephesians 1:23.

Psalm 40:6, 7, 8a (Septuagint BLB) Psalm 39:7-9a (Septuagint Academic)
θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας ὠτία δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι ὁλοκαύτωμα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ᾔτησας θυσίαν καὶ προσφορὰν οὐκ ἠθέλησας, ὠτία δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι· ὁλοκαύτωμα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ᾔτησας
τότε εἶπον ἰδοὺ ἥκω ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ τότε εἶπον ᾿Ιδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ·
τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου ὁ θεός μου τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου, ὁ θεός μου
John 1:18 (NET) John 1:18 (KJV)
No one has ever seen God.  The only one, himself God, who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς[38] ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο θεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε ο μονογενης υιος ο ων εις τον κολπον του πατρος εκεινος εξηγησατο θεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε ο μονογενης υιος ο ων εις τον κολπον του πατρος εκεινος εξηγησατο
Romans 11:15 (NET) Romans 11:15 (KJV)
For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀποβολὴ αὐτῶν καταλλαγὴ κόσμου, τίς ἡ πρόσλημψις εἰ μὴ ζωὴ ἐκ νεκρῶν ει γαρ η αποβολη αυτων καταλλαγη κοσμου τις η προσληψις ει μη ζωη εκ νεκρων ει γαρ η αποβολη αυτων καταλλαγη κοσμου τις η προσληψις ει μη ζωη εκ νεκρων
Luke 24:32 (NET) Luke 24:32 (KJV)
They said to each other, “Didn’t our hearts burn within us while he was speaking with us on the road, while he was explaining the scriptures to us?” And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς ἀλλήλους· οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν  ὡς ἐλάλει ἡμῖν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, ὡς διήνοιγεν ἡμῖν τὰς γραφάς και ειπον προς αλληλους ουχι η καρδια ημων καιομενη ην εν ημιν ως ελαλει ημιν εν τη οδω και ως διηνοιγεν ημιν τας γραφας και ειπον προς αλληλους ουχι η καρδια ημων καιομενη ην εν ημιν ως ελαλει ημιν εν τη οδω και ως διηνοιγεν ημιν τας γραφας
Romans 8:10, 11 (NET) Romans 8:10, 11 (KJV)
But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness. And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην ει δε χριστος εν υμιν το μεν σωμα νεκρον δι αμαρτιαν το δε πνευμα ζωη δια δικαιοσυνην ει δε χριστος εν υμιν το μεν σωμα νεκρον δια αμαρτιαν το δε πνευμα ζωη δια δικαιοσυνην
Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who lives in you. But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας |Χριστὸν| ἐκ νεκρῶν  ζῳοποιήσει |καὶ| τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν ει δε το πνευμα του εγειραντος ιησουν εκ νεκρων οικει εν υμιν ο εγειρας τον χριστον εκ νεκρων ζωοποιησει και τα θνητα σωματα υμων δια το ενοικουν αυτου πνευμα εν υμιν ει δε το πνευμα του εγειραντος ιησουν εκ νεκρων οικει εν υμιν ο εγειρας τον χριστον εκ νεκρων ζωοποιησει και τα θνητα σωματα υμων δια το ενοικουν αυτου πνευμα εν υμιν
Philippians 3:21 (NET) Philippians 3:21 (KJV)
who will transform these humble bodies of ours into the likeness of his glorious body by means of that power by which he is able to subject all things to himself. Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ὃς μετασχηματίσει τὸ σῶμα τῆς ταπεινώσεως ἡμῶν σύμμορφον τῷ σώματι τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ δύνασθαι αὐτὸν καὶ ὑποτάξαι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα. ος μετασχηματισει το σωμα της ταπεινωσεως ημων εις το γενεσθαι αυτο συμμορφον τω σωματι της δοξης αυτου κατα την ενεργειαν του δυνασθαι αυτον και υποταξαι εαυτω τα παντα ος μετασχηματισει το σωμα της ταπεινωσεως ημων εις το γενεσθαι αυτο συμμορφον τω σωματι της δοξης αυτου κατα την ενεργειαν του δυνασθαι αυτον και υποταξαι εαυτω τα παντα
1 Corinthians 15:50, 51 (NET) 1 Corinthians 15:50, 51 (KJV)
Now this is what I am saying, brothers and sisters: Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Τοῦτο δέ φημι, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύναται οὐδὲ ἡ φθορὰ τὴν ἀφθαρσίαν κληρονομεῖ τουτο δε φημι αδελφοι οτι σαρξ και αιμα βασιλειαν θεου κληρονομησαι ου δυνανται ουδε η φθορα την αφθαρσιαν κληρονομει τουτο δε φημι αδελφοι οτι σαρξ και αιμα βασιλειαν θεου κληρονομησαι ου δυνανται ουδε η φθορα την αφθαρσιαν κληρονομει
Listen, I will tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed – Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα, πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα ιδου μυστηριον υμιν λεγω παντες μεν ου κοιμηθησομεθα παντες δε αλλαγησομεθα ιδου μυστηριον υμιν λεγω παντες μεν ου κοιμηθησομεθα παντες δε αλλαγησομεθα
Ephesians 1:23 (NET) Ephesians 1:23 (KJV)
Now the church is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἥτις ἐστὶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ, τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν πληρουμένου ητις εστιν το σωμα αυτου το πληρωμα του παντα εν πασιν πληρουμενου ητις εστιν το σωμα αυτου το πληρωμα του τα παντα εν πασιν πληρουμενου

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Exodus 29:1 a (NET)

[4] Hebrews 10:1 (NET)

[5] Exodus 29:9 (NET)

[6] The NET parallel Greek text had θυσίας, the plural form, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had θυσιαν, the singular form of θυσία.

[7] The NET parallel Greek text had προσφορὰς, the plural form, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had προσφοραν, the singular form of προσφορά.

[8] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ο θεος (KJV: O God) here.  The NET parallel Greek text did not.

[9] Study: Luke 4:18-19; Condemnation or Judgment? – Part 14; Forgiven or Passed Over? – Part 4

[10] Study: Luke 4:18-19

[11] Joseph Gleason, “Masoretic Text vs. Original Hebrew,” The Orthodox LifeHere is an alternative Orthodox opinion to Mr. Gleason’s view of Russia since his 2017 emigration there from Illinois.

[12] Karen H. Jobes, “The Function of Paronomasia in Hebrews 10:5–7

[13] John 1:14 (NET)

[14] John 1:18a (NET)

[15] The Stephanas Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ο preceding this, the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[16] The Stephanas Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had υιος here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had θεὸς.  See NET note 45.

[17] John 1:18b (NET)

[18] John 1:11 (NET)

[19] The NET parallel Greek text had πρόσλημψις here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had προσληψις.  Both are nominative singular feminine forms of πρόσληψις.

[20] Romans 11:15, 16 (NET)

[21] The NET parallel Greek text did not include εν ημιν (within us) here but added the English words “for clarity” anyway, as explained in note 88: “NA27 [Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece] includes the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.”  NA28 still contains the words εν ημιν in brackets.

[22] The Stephanas Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the conjunction και here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[23] Luke 24:32 (NET)

[24] Romans 6:6 (NET)

[25] Colossians 1:21-23a (NET)

[26] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had δι here, where the NET parallel Greek text, Byzantine Majority Text and NA28 had διὰ.

[27] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had the article τὸν preceding Jesus.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[28] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the article τὸν preceding Christ.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[29] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had πνεύματος, a genitive singular neuter form of πνεῦμα here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πνευμα, the nominative / accusative singular neuter form.

[30] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἐνοικοῦντος, a present active participle genitive active singular neuter form of ἐνοικέω here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ενοικουν, the present active participle accusative singular neuter form.

[31] Romans 8:10, 11 (NET)

[32] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εις το γενεσθαι αυτο συμμορφον (KJV: that it may be fashioned like unto) here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had simply σύμμορφον (a form of συμμορφός).

[33] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had αὐτῷ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εαυτω.

[34] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had δύναται here, a present middle / passive deponent indicative 3rd person singular form of δύναμαι.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δυνανται, the present middle / passive deponent indicative 3rd person plural form.

[35] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had μεν at the beginning of this clause.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[36] This is ἐκκλησίᾳ in Greek, found actually at the end of verse 22.

[37] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had the article τὰ preceding the first all.  The Stephanas Textus Receptus did not.

[38] See NET note 45.

Atonement, Part 5

I’ll continue to consider yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  The atonement of Aaron and his sons continued:

Exodus 29:15-18 (NET)

Leviticus 8:18-21 (NET)

You are to take one ram, and Aaron and his sons are to lay their hands on the ram’s head, Then he presented the burnt offering (ʽôlâh, העלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαύτωμα) ram and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram,
and you are to kill the ram and take its blood and splash it all around on the altar. and he slaughtered it.  Moses then splashed the blood against the altar’s sides.
Then you are to cut the ram into pieces and wash the entrails and its legs and put them on its pieces and on its head Then he cut the ram into parts, and Moses offered the head, the parts, and the suet up in smoke,
and burn the whole ram on the altar.  It is a burnt offering (ʽôlâh, עלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαύτωμα) to the Lord, a soothing aroma; it is an offering made by fire to the Lord. but the entrails and the legs he washed with water, and Moses offered the whole ram up in smoke on the altar – it was a burnt offering (ʽôlâh, עלה; Septuagint: ὁλοκαύτωμα) for a soothing aroma, a gift (ʼishshâh, אשה) to the Lord, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

The burnt offering ram was eaten by no one.  This led me to a discussion between Jesus and one of the experts in the law (γραμματέων, a form of γραμματεύς) on the relative merits of burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτωμάτων, a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα).  Before turning to that I want to survey what the New Testament writers had to say about these experts.

When wise men from the East alarmed Herod with news that a King of the Jews had been born, Herod turned to the chief priests and experts in the law (γραμματεῖς, another form of γραμματεύς) and asked them where the Christ was to be born.[3]  The γραμματεῖς turned to the writing of the prophet Micah (Matthew 2:5, 6 NET):

“In Bethlehem of Judea,” they said, “for it is written this way by the prophet: ‘And you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are in no way least among the rulers of Judah, for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’”

Here are two tables comparing the Greek of the New Testament with the Septuagint, and the English translations of the Hebrew (Tanakh) and the Greek (NETS).

Matthew 2:6 (NET Parallel Greek)

Micah 5:2 (Septuagint)

καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ καὶ σύ Βηθλεεμ οἶκος τοῦ Εφραθα ὀλιγοστὸς εἶ τοῦ εἶναι ἐν χιλιάσιν Ιουδα ἐκ σοῦ μοι ἐξελεύσεται τοῦ εἶναι εἰς ἄρχοντα ἐν τῷ Ισραηλ καὶ αἱ ἔξοδοι αὐτοῦ ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς ἐξ ἡμερῶν αἰῶνος

Micah 5:2 (Tanakh)

Micah (Michaias) 5:2 (NETS)

But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting. And you, O Bethlehem, house of Ephratha, are very few in number to be among the thousands of Ioudas; one from you shall come forth for me to become a ruler in Israel, and his goings forth are from of old, from days of yore.

The γραμματεῖς updated the geography from οἶκος τοῦ Εφραθα (“house of Ephratha”) to γῆ Ἰούδα (in the land of Judah).  Where the Hebrew and its Greek translation affirmed that Bethelem was little or “very few” (ὀλιγοστὸς), they denied it: οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη (in no way least).  Where the Hebrew and its Greek translation compared Bethlehem to χιλιάσιν Ιουδα (thousands of Judah), they compared it to ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα (rulers of Judah).  The γραμματεῖς left out that this ruler would come forth unto (or, “for”) yehôvâh (יהוה) and that his goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.

They did recognize that this ruler would shepherd (ποιμανεῖ, a form of ποιμαίνω) the people: He will assume his post and shepherd[4] (râʽâh, ורעה; Septuagint: ποιμανεῖ, a form of ποιμαίνω) the people by the Lord’s (yehôvâh, יהוה) strength[5]  This ruler who will shepherd or feed the people is none other than yehôvâh (Micah 4:6, 7 Tanakh):

In that day,[6] saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), will I assemble her that halteth, and I will gather her that is driven out, and her that I have afflicted; And I will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far off a strong nation: and the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) shall reign over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever.

Translations made from contemporary Hebrew, however, imply simultaneously that this ruler is not yehôvâh but one who shall stand and feedin the majesty of the name of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) his God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהיו):

Micah 5:4 (Tanakh)

Micah 5:4 (KJV)

And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth. And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth.

The Septuagint was much clearer.

Micah 5:4 (Septuagint)

Micah 5:4 (NETS)

καὶ στήσεται καὶ ὄψεται καὶ ποιμανεῖ τὸ ποίμνιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἰσχύι κυρίου καὶ ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ ὀνόματος κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ αὐτῶν ὑπάρξουσιν[7] διότι νῦν μεγαλυνθήσεται ἕως ἄκρων τῆς γῆς And he shall stand and see and tend his flock in the strength of the Lord.  And they shall exist in the glory of the name of the Lord their God, for now he shall be great to the ends of the earth…

Most references[8] to the experts in the law portray them in opposition to Jesus and the Gospel.  For I tell you, Jesus said, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law (γραμματέων, a form of γραμματεύς) and the Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.[9]  When they heard Jesus’ prophetic parable (Luke 20:9-19) about the vineyard that was taken from the former tenants to be given to others, the experts in the law (γραμματεῖς, another form of γραμματεύς) and the chief priests wanted to arrest him that very hour, because they realized he had told this parable against them.  But they were afraid of the people.[10]

What follows is one of a precious few references[11] to one of the experts in the law (γραμματέων, a form of γραμματεύς) who was not in direct opposition to Jesus or the Gospel.  There are so many differences between the NET parallel Greek text and the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text that I’ll present it in tabular form, breaking the table to compare and contrast the Greek texts.

Mark 12:28, 29 (NET)

Mark 12:28, 29 (KJV)

Now one of the experts in the law came and heard them debating.  When he saw that Jesus answered them well, he asked him, “Which commandment is the most important of all?” And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Καὶ προσελθὼν εἷς τῶν γραμματέων ἀκούσας αὐτῶν συζητούντων, |ἰδὼν| ὅτι καλῶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν· ποία ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων και προσελθων εις των γραμματεων ακουσας αυτων συζητουντων ειδως οτι καλως αυτοις απεκριθη επηρωτησεν αυτον ποια εστιν πρωτη πασων εντολη και προσελθων εις των γραμματεων ακουσας αυτων συζητουντων ειδως οτι καλως αυτοις απεκριθη επηρωτησεν αυτον ποια εστιν πρωτη παντων εντολη
Jesus answered, “The most important is: ‘Listen, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι πρώτη ἐστίν ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν ο δε ιησους απεκριθη αυτω οτι πρωτη πασων των εντολων ακουε ισραηλ κυριος ο θεος ημων κυριος εις εστιν ο δε ιησους απεκριθη αυτω οτι πρωτη παντων των εντολων ακουε ισραηλ κυριος ο θεος ημων κυριος εις εστιν

Here is a comparison of Jesus’ quotation from Deuteronomy.  I wanted to accentuate that it is identical to the Septuagint.

Mark 12:29b, 30 (NET Parallel Greek)

Dueteronomy 6:4b (Septuagint)

ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν ἄκουε Ισραηλ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν

Mark 12:30 (NET)

Mark 12:30 (KJV)

Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης |τῆς| καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου και αγαπησεις κυριον τον θεον σου εξ ολης της καρδιας σου και εξ ολης της ψυχης σου και εξ ολης της διανοιας σου και εξ ολης της ισχυος σου αυτη πρωτη εντολη και αγαπησεις κυριον τον θεον σου εξ ολης της καρδιας σου και εξ ολης της ψυχης σου και εξ ολης της διανοιας σου και εξ ολης της ισχυος σου αυτη πρωτη εντολη

Here I noticed the differences between Jesus’ words and the Septuagint.

Mark 12:30 (NET Parallel Greek)

Deuteronomy 6:5 (Septuagint)

καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης |τῆς| καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς δυνάμεώς σου
ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας ὑμῶν (from Joshua 22:5)

And thou shalt love HaShem thy G-d with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.[12]  Jesus added διανοίας (a form of διάνοια) from Joshua 22:5 apparently.  He also substituted ἰσχύος (a form of ἰσχύς) for δυνάμεώς (a form of δύναμις).  While ἰσχύος may arguably be more expansive than δυνάμεώς, the alteration prompted me to notice that forms of δύναμις referred to the power of God more often than not in the New Testament.

Only twenty-two[13] of 120 occurrences of forms of δύναμις referred to something other than God’s power.  I found eight of those which referred to human power, three of them only potentially human: The merchants of the earth have gotten rich from the power (δυνάμεως, a form of δύναμις) of [Babylon’s] sensual behavior.[14]  No powers (δυνάμεις, another form of δύναμις) will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.[15]  Then comes the end, when he hands over[16] the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power (δύναμιν, another form of δύναμις).[17]

In a parable a man entrusted wealth to his slaves, each according to his ability (δύναμιν, another form of δύναμις).  The churches of Macedonia gave according to their means (δύναμιν, another form of δύναμις) and beyond their means (δύναμιν, another form of δύναμις).[18]  Paul planned to journey to Corinth to find out the power (δύναμιν, another form of δύναμις) of arrogant people.  In the province of Asia Paul and his companions were burdened excessively, beyond [their] strength (δύναμιν, another form of δύναμις) so that [they] would not trust in [themselves] but in God who raises the dead.[19]  And Peter said, Men of Israel, why are you amazed at this?  Why do you stare at us as if we had made this man walk by our own power (δυνάμει, another form of δύναμις) or piety?[20] 

Perhaps Jesus was thinking of the word of the LORD unto Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the LORD of hosts.[21]  In the Septuagint, however, might was δυνάμει (another form of δύναμις) here but power was ἰσχύι (another form of ἰσχύς).

Mark 12:31-33 (NET)

Mark 12:31-33 (KJV)

The second is: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’  There is no other commandment greater than these.” And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  There is none other commandment greater than these.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

δευτέρα αὕτη· ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν και δευτερα ομοια αυτη αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως σεαυτον μειζων τουτων αλλη εντολη ουκ εστιν και δευτερα ομοια αυτη αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως σεαυτον μειζων τουτων αλλη εντολη ουκ εστιν
The expert in the law said to him, “That is true, Teacher; you are right to say that he is one, and there is no one else besides him. And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

|καὶ| εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ γραμματεύς· καλῶς, διδάσκαλε, ἐπ᾿ ἀληθείας εἶπες ὅτι εἷς ἐστιν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν αὐτοῦ και ειπεν αυτω ο γραμματευς καλως διδασκαλε επ αληθειας ειπας οτι εις εστιν θεος και ουκ εστιν αλλος πλην αυτου και ειπεν αυτω ο γραμματευς καλως διδασκαλε επ αληθειας ειπας οτι εις εστιν και ουκ εστιν αλλος πλην αυτου
And to love him with all your heart, with all your mind, and with all your strength and to love your neighbor as yourself is more important than all burnt offerings (ὁλοκαυτωμάτων, a form of ὁλοκαύτωμα) and sacrifices.” And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτὸν ἐξ ὅλης |τῆς| καρδίας καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς συνέσεως καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν τὸν πλησίον ὡς ἑαυτὸν περισσότερον ἐστιν πάντων τῶν ὁλοκαυτωμάτων καὶ θυσιῶν και το αγαπαν αυτον εξ ολης της καρδιας και εξ ολης της συνεσεως και εξ ολης της ψυχης και εξ ολης της ισχυος και το αγαπαν τον πλησιον ως εαυτον πλειον εστιν παντων των ολοκαυτωματων και των θυσιων και το αγαπαν αυτον εξ ολης της καρδιας και εξ ολης της συνεσεως και εξ ολης της ψυχης και εξ ολης της ισχυος και το αγαπαν τον πλησιον ως εαυτον πλειον εστιν παντων των ολοκαυτωματων και θυσιων

I noticed that the expert in the law used συνέσεως (a form of σύνεσις) rather than διανοίας (a form of διάνοια).  I don’t know why.  But I can track both words through the New Testament.

Therefore, get your minds (διανοίας, a form of διάνοια) ready for action by being fully sober, and set your hope completely on the grace that will be brought to you when Jesus Christ is revealed.[22]  My goal is that their hearts, having been knit together[23] in love, may be encouraged, and that they may have all[24] the riches[25] that assurance brings in their understanding (συνέσεως, a form of σύνεσις) of the knowledge of the mystery of God, namely, Christ,[26] in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.[27]

Forms of διάνοια

Forms of σύνεσις

He hath showed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination (διανοίᾳ) of their hearts.

Luke 1:51 (KJV)

And all who heard Jesus were astonished at his understanding (συνέσει, another form of σύνεσις) and his answers.

Luke 2:47 (NET)

They are darkened[28] in their understanding (διανοίᾳ), being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts.

Ephesians 4:18 (NET)

For this reason we also, from the day we heard about you, have not ceased praying for you and asking God to fill you with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding (συνέσει, another form of σύνεσις)…

Colossians 1:9 (NET)

And you were at one time strangers and enemies in your minds (διανοίᾳ) as expressed through your evil deeds…

Colossians 1:21 (NET)

When reading this, you will be able to understand my insight (σύνεσιν, another form of σύνεσις) into this secret of Christ.

Ephesians 3:4 (NET)

…among whom all of us also formerly lived out our lives in the cravings of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and the mind (διανοιῶν, another form of διάνοια), and were by nature children of wrath even as the rest…

Ephesians 2:3 (NET)

Think about what[29] I am saying and the Lord will give[30] you understanding (σύνεσιν, another form of σύνεσις) of all this.

2 Timothy 2:7 (NET)

Dear friends, this is already the second letter I have written you, in which I am trying to stir up your pure mind (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια) by way of reminder:

2 Peter 3:1 (NET)

And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us insight (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια) to know him who is true, and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ.  This one is the true God and eternal life.[31]

1 John 5:20 (NET)

If I exclude the quotations which agree with the Septuagint (See Table1 below), I notice a preference in Paul’s writing for forms of σύνεσις when describing the mind or understanding of the new human, while forms of διάνοια described that of the old human.  Luke seemed to follow that convention as well, though Peter and John don’t appear to recognize any such connotations.  Peter’s association with Mark’s Gospel narrative and the fact that he demonstrated no preference for forms of σύνεσις lead me to believe that the law expert’s usage is original, though I can’t exclude editorial commentary by Mark.

I’m hard-pressed to imagine that this law expert had a grasp of the old and new human, but Matthew identified him further as a Pharisee.  It makes me wonder if Pharisees already had similar connotations in mind, forms of σύνεσις for righteous Jews, forms of διάνοια for Gentile sinners.  Luke may have picked up on this through his association with Paul.  But what does it say about Jesus?

Admittedly, the simplest conclusion is that He quoted the Septuagint, but I haven’t noticed such slavish devotion before.  By sticking with διανοιας He may have been communicating to this Pharisee and law expert the impossibility of loving God with a proud, ignorant, stranger, enemy mind full of desires of the flesh and alienated from the life of God.  That certainly reinforces his dictum: You must all be born from above.[32]

I have no clue whether Jesus as a man carried this much foreknowledge around with Him.  I have no doubt the Holy Spirit does (Isaiah 46:9, 10), and knew verbatim what He would inspire Luke and Paul to write.  Jesus was led by the Spirit like no one I have ever known.  Be that as it may, He didn’t question, or quarrel with, the law expert’s use of συνέσεως.

Mark 12:34a (NET)

Mark 12:34a (KJV)

When Jesus saw that he had answered thoughtfully, he said to him, “You are not far from the kingdom of God.” And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God.

Paul wrote believers in Rome (Romans 13:8-10 NET):

Owe no one anything, except to love one another, for the one who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law.  For the commandments, “Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal,[33] do not covet,” (and if there is any other commandment) are summed up in this, “Love your neighbor as yourself.”[34]  Love does no wrong to a neighbor.  Therefore love (1 Corinthians 13) is the fulfillment  (Matthew 5:17-20) of the law.

To those of Galatia he wrote (Galatians 5:13-26 NET):

For you were called to freedom, brothers and sisters; only do not use your freedom as an opportunity to indulge your flesh, but through love serve one another.  For the whole law can be summed up[35] in a single commandment, namely, “You must love your neighbor as yourself.”[36]  However, if you continually bite and devour one another, beware that you are not consumed by[37] one another.  But I say, live by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desires of the flesh.  For the flesh has desires that are opposed to the Spirit, and the Spirit has desires that are opposed to the flesh, for[38] these are in opposition to each other, so that you cannot do what[39] you want.  But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.  Now the works of the flesh are obvious:[40] sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, idolatry,[41] sorcery, hostilities, strife,[42] jealousy,[43] outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, factions, envying, murder, drunkenness, carousing, and similar things.  I am warning you,[44] as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.  Against such things there is no law.  Now those who belong to Christ have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.  If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with the Spirit.  Let us not become conceited, provoking one another, being jealous of one another.

I’ll pick this up again in another essay.  A table of Septuagint quotations and tables comparing Revelation 18:3; 1 Corinthians 15:24; 2 Corinthians 1:8, 9; Acts 3:12; Colossians 2:2, 3; Ephesians 4:18; 2 Timothy 2:7; 1 John 5:20; Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:14, 15, 17 and 19-21 in the NET and KJV follow.

Septuagint Quotations

διάνοια

σύνεσις

Jesus said to him, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind (διανοίᾳ).’

Matthew 22:37 (NET)

For it is written, “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will thwart the cleverness (σύνεσιν, another form of σύνεσις; also Septuagint) of the intelligent.”

1 Corinthians 1:19 (NET)

The expert answered, “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind (διανοίᾳ), and love your neighbor as yourself.”

Luke 10:27 (NET)

For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord. I will put my laws in their minds (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια; also Septuagint) and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people.

Hebrews 8:10 (NET)

This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια),

Hebrews 10:16 (NET)

Revelation 18:3 (NET)

Revelation 18:3 (KJV)

For all the nations have fallen from the wine of her immoral passion, and the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth have gotten rich from the power of her sensual behavior. For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὅτι ἐκ |τοῦ οἴνου| τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς |πέπτωκαν| πάντα τὰ ἔθνη καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς μετ᾿ αὐτῆς ἐπόρνευσαν καὶ οἱ ἔμποροι τῆς γῆς ἐκ τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ στρήνους αὐτῆς ἐπλούτησαν οτι εκ του οινου του θυμου της πορνειας αυτης πεπωκεν παντα τα εθνη και οι βασιλεις της γης μετ αυτης επορνευσαν και οι εμποροι της γης εκ της δυναμεως του στρηνους αυτης επλουτησαν οτι εκ του οινου του θυμου της πορνειας αυτης πεπτωκασιν παντα τα εθνη και οι βασιλεις της γης μετ αυτης επορνευσαν και οι εμποροι της γης εκ της δυναμεως του στρηνους αυτης επλουτησαν
1 Corinthians 15:24 (NET)

1 Corinthians 15:24 (KJV)

Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power. Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἶτα τὸ τέλος, ὅταν παραδιδῷ τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί, ὅταν καταργήσῃ πᾶσαν ἀρχὴν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐξουσίαν καὶ δύναμιν ειτα το τελος οταν παραδω την βασιλειαν τω θεω και πατρι οταν καταργηση πασαν αρχην και πασαν εξουσιαν και δυναμιν ειτα το τελος οταν παραδω την βασιλειαν τω θεω και πατρι οταν καταργηση πασαν αρχην και πασαν εξουσιαν και δυναμιν
2 Corinthians 1:8, 9 (NET)

2 Corinthians 1:8, 9 (KJV)

For we do not want you to be unaware, brothers and sisters, regarding the affliction that happened to us in the province of Asia, that we were burdened excessively, beyond our strength, so that we despaired even of living. For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life:

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Οὐ γὰρ θέλομεν ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὑπὲρ τῆς θλίψεως ἡμῶν τῆς γενομένης ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ, ὅτι καθ᾿ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπὲρ δύναμιν ἐβαρήθημεν ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῆν ου γαρ θελομεν υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι υπερ της θλιψεως ημων της γενομενης ημιν εν τη ασια οτι καθ υπερβολην εβαρηθημεν υπερ δυναμιν ωστε εξαπορηθηναι ημας και του ζην ου γαρ θελομεν υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι υπερ της θλιψεως ημων της γενομενης ημιν εν τη ασια οτι καθ υπερβολην εβαρηθημεν υπερ δυναμιν ωστε εξαπορηθηναι ημας και του ζην
Indeed we felt as if the sentence of death had been passed against us, so that we would not trust in ourselves but in God who raises the dead. But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead:

Acts 3:12 (NET)

Acts 3:12 (KJV)

When Peter saw this, he declared to the people, “Men of Israel, why are you amazed at this? Why do you stare at us as if we had made this man walk by our own power or piety? And when Peter saw it, he answered unto the people, Ye men of Israel, why marvel ye at this? or why look ye so earnestly on us, as though by our own power or holiness we had made this man to walk?

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἰδὼν δὲ Πέτρος ἀπεκρίνατο πρὸς τὸν λαόν· ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλῖται, τί θαυμάζετε ἐπὶ τούτῳ ἢ ἡμῖν τί ἀτενίζετε ὡς ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει ἢ εὐσεβείᾳ πεποιηκόσιν τοῦ περιπατεῖν αὐτόν ιδων δε πετρος απεκρινατο προς τον λαον ανδρες ισραηλιται τι θαυμαζετε επι τουτω η ημιν τι ατενιζετε ως ιδια δυναμει η ευσεβεια πεποιηκοσιν του περιπατειν αυτον ιδων δε πετρος απεκρινατο προς τον λαον ανδρες ισραηλιται τι θαυμαζετε επι τουτω η ημιν τι ατενιζετε ως ιδια δυναμει η ευσεβεια πεποιηκοσιν του περιπατειν αυτον
Colossians 2:2, 3 (NET)

Colossians 2:2, 3 (KJV)

My goal is that their hearts, having been knit together in love, may be encouraged, and that they may have all the riches that assurance brings in their understanding of the knowledge of the mystery of God, namely, Christ, That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ;

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἵνα παρακληθῶσιν αἱ καρδίαι αὐτῶν συμβιβασθέντες ἐν ἀγάπῃ καὶ εἰς πᾶν πλοῦτος τῆς πληροφορίας τῆς συνέσεως, εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ θεοῦ, Χριστοῦ ινα παρακληθωσιν αι καρδιαι αυτων συμβιβασθεντων εν αγαπη και εις παντα πλουτον της πληροφοριας της συνεσεως εις επιγνωσιν του μυστηριου του θεου και πατρος και του χριστου ινα παρακληθωσιν αι καρδιαι αυτων συμβιβασθεντων εν αγαπη και εις παντα πλουτον της πληροφοριας της συνεσεως εις επιγνωσιν του μυστηριου του θεου και πατρος και του χριστου
in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐν ᾧ εἰσιν πάντες οἱ θησαυροὶ τῆς σοφίας καὶ γνώσεως ἀπόκρυφοι εν ω εισιν παντες οι θησαυροι της σοφιας και της γνωσεως αποκρυφοι εν ω εισιν παντες οι θησαυροι της σοφιας και της γνωσεως αποκρυφοι
Ephesians 4:18 (NET)

Ephesians 4:18 (KJV)

They are darkened in their understanding, being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts. Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐσκοτωμένοι τῇ διανοίᾳ ὄντες, ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τῆς ζωῆς τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν ἄγνοιαν τὴν οὖσαν ἐν αὐτοῖς, διὰ τὴν πώρωσιν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν εσκοτισμενοι τη διανοια οντες απηλλοτριωμενοι της ζωης του θεου δια την αγνοιαν την ουσαν εν αυτοις δια την πωρωσιν της καρδιας αυτων εσκοτισμενοι τη διανοια οντες απηλλοτριωμενοι της ζωης του θεου δια την αγνοιαν την ουσαν εν αυτοις δια την πωρωσιν της καρδιας αυτων
2 Timothy 2:7 (NET)

2 Timothy 2:7 (KJV)

Think about what I am saying and the Lord will give you understanding of all this. Consider what I say; and the Lord give thee understanding in all things.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

νόει λέγω· δώσει γάρ σοι ὁ κύριος σύνεσιν ἐν πᾶσιν νοει α λεγω δωη γαρ σοι ο κυριος συνεσιν εν πασιν νοει α λεγω δωη γαρ σοι ο κυριος συνεσιν εν πασιν
1 John 5:20 (NET)

1 John 5:20 (KJV)

And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us insight to know him who is true, and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ.  This one is the true God and eternal life. And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ἥκει καὶ δέδωκεν ἡμῖν διάνοιαν ἵνα |γινώσκωμεν| τὸν ἀληθινόν, καὶ ἐσμὲν ἐν τῷ ἀληθινῷ, ἐν τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ. οὗτος ἐστιν ὁ ἀληθινὸς θεὸς καὶ ζωὴ αἰώνιος οιδαμεν δε οτι ο υιος του θεου ηκει και δεδωκεν ημιν διανοιαν ινα γινωσκωμεν τον αληθινον και εσμεν εν τω αληθινω εν τω υιω αυτου ιησου χριστω ουτος εστιν ο αληθινος θεος και η ζωη αιωνιος οιδαμεν δε οτι ο υιος του θεου ηκει και δεδωκεν ημιν διανοιαν ινα γινωσκωμεν τον αληθινον και εσμεν εν τω αληθινω εν τω υιω αυτου ιησου χριστω ουτος εστιν ο αληθινος θεος και η ζωη η αιωνιος
Romans 13:9 (NET)

Romans 13:9 (KJV)

For the commandments, “Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not covet,” (and if there is any other commandment) are summed up in this, “Love your neighbor as yourself.” For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

τὸ γὰρ οὐ μοιχεύσεις, οὐ φονεύσεις, οὐ κλέψεις, οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις (καὶ εἴ τις ἑτέρα ἐντολή) ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ ἀνακεφαλαιοῦται [ἐν τῷ]· ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν το γαρ ου μοιχευσεις ου φονευσεις ου κλεψεις ου ψευδομαρτυρησεις ουκ επιθυμησεις και ει τις ετερα εντολη εν τουτω τω λογω ανακεφαλαιουται εν τω αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως εαυτον το γαρ ου μοιχευσεις ου φονευσεις ου κλεψεις ου ψευδομαρτυρησεις ουκ επιθυμησεις και ει τις ετερα εντολη εν τουτω τω λογω ανακεφαλαιουται εν τω αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως σεαυτον
Galatians 5:14, 15 (NET)

Galatians 5:14, 15 (KJV)

For the whole law can be summed up in a single commandment, namely, “You must love your neighbor as yourself.” For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ἐν ἑνὶ λόγῳ πεπλήρωται, ἐν τῷ· ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν ο γαρ πας νομος εν ενι λογω πληρουται εν τω αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως εαυτον ο γαρ πας νομος εν ενι λογω πληρουται εν τω αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως εαυτον
However, if you continually bite and devour one another, beware that you are not consumed by one another. But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰ δὲ ἀλλήλους δάκνετε καὶ κατεσθίετε, βλέπετε μὴ ὑπ᾿ ἀλλήλων ἀναλωθῆτε. ει δε αλληλους δακνετε και κατεσθιετε βλεπετε μη υπο αλληλων αναλωθητε ει δε αλληλους δακνετε και κατεσθιετε βλεπετε μη υπο αλληλων αναλωθητε

Galatians 5:17 (NET)

Galatians 5:17 (KJV)

For the flesh has desires that are opposed to the Spirit, and the Spirit has desires that are opposed to the flesh, for these are in opposition to each other, so that you cannot do what you want. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἡ γὰρ σὰρξ ἐπιθυμεῖ κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα κατὰ τῆς σαρκός, ταῦτα γὰρ ἀλλήλοις ἀντίκειται, ἵνα μὴ ἃ ἐὰν θέλητε ταῦτα ποιῆτε η γαρ σαρξ επιθυμει κατα του πνευματος το δε πνευμα κατα της σαρκος ταυτα δε αντικειται αλληλοις ινα μη α αν θελητε ταυτα ποιητε η γαρ σαρξ επιθυμει κατα του πνευματος το δε πνευμα κατα της σαρκος ταυτα δε αντικειται αλληλοις ινα μη α αν θελητε ταυτα ποιητε

Galatians 5:19-21 (NET)

Galatians 5:19-21 (KJV)

Now the works of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

φανερὰ δέ ἐστιν τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινα ἐστιν πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγεια, φανερα δε εστιν τα εργα της σαρκος ατινα εστιν μοιχεια πορνεια ακαθαρσια ασελγεια φανερα δε εστιν τα εργα της σαρκος ατινα εστιν μοιχεια πορνεια ακαθαρσια ασελγεια
idolatry, sorcery, hostilities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, factions, Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰδωλολατρία, φαρμακεία, ἔχθραι, ἔρις, ζῆλος, θυμοί, ἐριθεῖαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις ειδωλολατρεια φαρμακεια εχθραι ερεις ζηλοι θυμοι εριθειαι διχοστασιαι αιρεσεις ειδωλολατρεια φαρμακεια εχθραι ερεις ζηλοι θυμοι εριθειαι διχοστασιαι αιρεσεις
envying, murder, drunkenness, carousing, and similar things.  I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God! Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

φθόνοι, |φόνοι,| μέθαι, κῶμοι καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν, καθὼς προεῖπον ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν φθονοι φονοι μεθαι κωμοι και τα ομοια τουτοις α προλεγω υμιν καθως και προειπον οτι οι τα τοιαυτα πρασσοντες βασιλειαν θεου ου κληρονομησουσιν φθονοι φονοι μεθαι κωμοι και τα ομοια τουτοις α προλεγω υμιν καθως και προειπον οτι οι τα τοιαυτα πρασσοντες βασιλειαν θεου ου κληρονομησουσιν

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Matthew 2:4 (NET)

[4] Translated feed in the KJV and Tanakh.

[5] Micah 5:4a (NET)

[6] But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow unto it (Micah 4:1 Tanakh).

[7] A future active indicative 3rd person plural form of ὑπάρχω.

[8] Matthew 9:2-7; 12:38-42; 15:1-9; 16:21; 17:10-13; 20:18, 19; 21:15, 16; 23:2-13, 15, 23, 25, 27-32; 26:57; 27:41-44; Mark 2:6, 16; 3:22-30; 7:1-13; 8:31; 9:11-27; 10:33, 34; 12:35-40; 14:1, 43-46, 53; 15:1, 30-32; Luke 5:21, 30; 6:7-11; 9:22; 11:53, 54; 15:2-10; 19:47, 48; 20:1-19, 46, 47; 22:2, 66-71; 23:10; John 8:3-11; Acts 4:5-22; 6:12-7:60; 1 Corinthians 1:20-25

[9] Matthew 5:20 (NET)

[10] Luke 20:19 (NET)

[11] Matthew 8:19, 13:52; Luke 20:34-39; Acts 23:9

[12] Deuteronomy 6:5 (Tanakh)

[13] Matthew 24:29; Matthew 25:15; Mark 13:25; Luke 10:19; Luke 21:26; Acts 3:12; Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 4:19; 1 Corinthians 14:11; 1 Corinthians 15:24; 1 Corinthians 15:56; 2 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 8:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Hebrews 7:16; Hebrews 11:34; 1 Peter 3:22; 2 Peter 2:11; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 13:2; Revelation 17:13; Revelation 18:3

[14] Revelation 18:3b (NET)

[15] Romans 8:39b (NET)

[16] The NET parallel Greek text had παραδιδῷ here, a present active indicative 3rd person singular form of παραδίδωμι, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had παραδω, the 2nd aorist active subjunctive 3rd person singular form (KJV: he shall have delivered up).

[17] 1 Corinthians 15:24 (NET)

[18] Here I assume that beyond their means refers to the power of God.

[19] 2 Corinthians 1:9b (NET)

[20] Acts 3:12 (NET)

[21] Zechariah 4:6 (Tanakh)

[22] 1 Peter 1:13 (NET)

[23] The NET parallel Greek text had συμβιβασθέντες, an aorist passive participle nominative plural masculine form of συμβιβάζω, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had συμβιβασθεντων, the aorist passive participle genitive plural masculine form.

[24] The NET parallel Greek text had πᾶν here, a nominative / accusative singular neuter form of πᾶς, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had παντα, the nominative / accusative plural neuter form.

[25] The NET parallel Greek text had πλοῦτος here, the nominative singular masculine form, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πλουτον, the accusative singular masculine form.

[26] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had και πατρος και του χριστου (KJV: and of the Father, and of Christ) here, where the NET parallel Greek text had simply Χριστοῦ.

[27] Colossians 2:2, 3 (NET)  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the article της preceding knowledge, while the NET parallel Greek text did not.

[28] The NET parallel Greek text had ἐσκοτωμένοι here, a perfect passive participle nominative plural masculine form of σκοτόω, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εσκοτισμενοι, a perfect passive participle nominative plural masculine form of σκοτίζω.

[29] The NET parallel Greek text had ὃ here, the nominative singular neuter form of ὅς, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had α, the nominative / accusative plural neuter form.

[30] The NET parallel Greek text had δώσει here, a future active indicative 3rd person singular form of δίδωμι, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δωη, a 2nd aorist active 3rd person singular form in the subjunctive or optative mood dependent on accent marks which are not present in either of the texts I use.

[31] The Byzantine Majority Text had η preceding eternal and life; the Stephanus Textus Receptus had it preceding life only.  The NET parallel Greek text had neither.

[32] John 3:7b (NET)

[33] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ου ψευδομαρτυρησεις (KJV: Thou shalt not bear false witness). The NET parallel Greek text did not.

[34] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had εαυτον here, the 3rd person accusative singular masculine form of ἑαυτοῦ. The NET parallel Greek text and Byzantine Majority Text had σεαυτον, the 2nd person accusative singular masculine form of σεαυτοῦ.

[35] The NET parallel Greek text had πεπλήρωται here, a perfect middle indicative 3rd person plural form of πληρόω, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πληρουται, a present passive indicative 3rd person singular form.

[36] The NET parallel Greek text had σεαυτον here, the 2nd person accusative singular masculine form of σεαυτοῦ, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εαυτον, the 3rd person accusative singular masculine form of ἑαυτοῦ.

[37] The NET parallel Greek text had ὑπ᾿ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had υπο.

[38] The NET parallel Greek text had γὰρ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had δε.

[39] The NET parallel Greek text had ἐὰν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αν.

[40] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had μοιχεια (adultery) at the beginning of this list. The NET parallel Greek text did not.

[41] The NET parallel Greek text had εἰδωλολατρία here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ειδωλολατρεια.

[42] The NET parallel Greek text had ἔρις here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ερεις.

[43] The NET parallel Greek text had ζῆλος here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ζηλοι.

[44] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text connected these clauses with the conjunction και. The NET parallel Greek text did not.

Atonement, Part 4

I’ll continue to consider yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  The atonement of Aaron and his sons continued:

Exodus 29:10-14 (NET)

Leviticus 8:14-17 (NET)

You are to present the bull at the front of the tent of meeting, and Aaron and his sons are to put their hands on the head of the bull. Then [Moses] brought near the sin offering (chaṭṭâʼâh, החטאת; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία) bull and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the sin offering (chaṭṭâʼâh, החטאת; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία) bull,
You are to kill the bull before the Lord at the entrance to the tent of meeting and he slaughtered it.  Moses then took the blood and put it all around on the horns of the altar with his finger and decontaminated the altar, and he poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar and so consecrated (qâdash, ויקדשהו; Septuagint: ἡγίασεν, another form of ἁγιάζω) it to make atonement (kâphar, לכפר; Septuagint: ἐξιλάσασθαι, a form of ἐξιλάσκομαι) on it.
and take some of the blood of the bull and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger; all the rest of the blood you are to pour out at the base of the altar.
You are to take all the fat that covers the entrails, and the lobe that is above the liver, and the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and burn them on the altar. Then he took all the fat on the entrails, the protruding lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys and their fat, and Moses offered it all up in smoke on the altar,
But the meat of the bull, its skin, and its dung you are to burn up outside the camp.  It is the purification offering (chaṭṭâʼâh, חטאת; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία). but the rest of the bull – its hide, its flesh, and its dung – he completely burned up outside the camp just as the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) had commanded Moses.

The sin offering bull was eaten by no one.  The Hebrew word translated holy in the clause for they are holy was קדש (qôdesh).  In the Septuagint קדש (qôdesh) was translated ἅγια (a form of ἅγιος).

But now Christ has come as the high priest of the good things to come.[3]  He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, and he entered once for all into the most holy place (ἅγια, a form of ἅγιος) not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured eternal redemption.[4]

The Greek word translated more perfect was τελειοτέρας (a form of τέλειος).  Later in the same chapter the author located that more perfect tent beyond the phrase not of this creation (Hebrews 9:24-28 NET):

For Christ did not enter a sanctuary (ἅγια, a form of ἅγιος) made with hands – the representation of the true sanctuary – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us.  And he did not enter to offer himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary (ἅγια, a form of ἅγιος) year after year with blood that is not his own, for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world.  But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice.  And just as people are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin but to bring salvation.

I got a little obsessed (See Table1 below) convincing myself that πολλῶν ἀνενεγκεῖν ἁμαρτίας (to bear the sins of many) was the referent of χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας, but did eventually come to the conclusion that not to bear sin was a better translation of χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας than the more literal without sin (KJV).[5]    The phrase to bear (ἀνενεγκεῖν, a form of ἀναφέρω) the sins of many was an allusion to Isaiah’s prophecy.

Isaiah 53:12 (NET) Hebrews 9:28 (NET Parallel Greek) Isaiah 53:12 (Septuagint)

Isaiah 53:12 (Tanakh)

…he lifted up the sin of many… πολλῶν ἀνενεγκεῖν[6] ἁμαρτίας ἁμαρτίας πολλῶν ἀνήνεγκεν[7] …he bare the sin of many…

The Hebrew word translated ἀνήνεγκεν in the Septuagint was נשׁא (nâśâʼ), which brought me back to the long name of God: And HaShem passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The HaShem, HaShem, G-d, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth; keeping mercy unto the thousandth generation, forgiving (nâśâʼ, נשׁא; Septuagint: ἀφαιρῶν, a form of ἀφαιρέω) iniquity and transgression and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and unto the fourth generation.’[8]  The author of Hebrews concluded (Hebrews 10:15-18 NET):

And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying,[9]This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord.  I will put my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,”[10] then he says, “Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember[11] no longer.”  Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

Dear friends, we are God’s children now, John wrote, and what we will be has not yet been revealed.  We know[12] that whenever it is revealed we will be like him, because we will see him just as he is.  And everyone who has this hope focused on him purifies himself, just as Jesus is pure.[13]  The Greek word translated purifies was ἁγνίζει (a form of ἁγνίζω).  It had a very specific meaning.  Now the Jewish feast of Passover was near, and many people went up to Jerusalem from the rural areas before the Passover to cleanse (ἁγνίσωσιν, another form of ἁγνίζω) themselves ritually.[14]

There were rituals to perform.  We have four men who have taken a vow, the brothers in Jerusalem instructed Paul, take them and purify (ἁγνίσθητι, another form of ἁγνίζω) yourself along with them and pay their expenses, so that they may have their heads shaved.[15]  Then Paul took the men the next day, and after he had purified (ἁγνισθείς, another form of ἁγνίζω) himself along with them, he went to the temple and gave notice of the completion of the days of purification (ἁγνισμοῦ, a form of ἁγνισμός), when the sacrifice would be offered for each of them.[16]  But I will strongly suggest that those rituals relate only tangentially to John’s use of ἁγνίζει above.

You have purified (ἡγνικότες, another form of ἁγνίζω) your souls by obeying (ὑπακοῇ, a form of ὑπακοή) the truth,[17] Peter wrote.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text had δια πνευματος here as well, translated through the Spirit (KJV).  The clue John left that he meant something other than established ritual was καθώς ἐστιν (literally, “just as he is”), translated just as Jesus is pure.  To walk just as Jesus walked is to be led by the Holy Spirit.  For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God.[18]  But I say, live by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desires of the flesh.[19]

John described a new covenant purification ritual, if you will, previously (1 John 1:8-2:2 NET):

If we say we do not bear the guilt of sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us.  But if we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous, forgiving us our sins and cleansing us from all unrighteousness.  If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar and his word is not in us.  (My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin.)  But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous One, and he himself is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for our sins but also for the whole world.

Everyone who practices sin also practices lawlessness, John continued, indeed, sin is lawlessness.  And you know that Jesus was revealed to take away sins,[20] and in him there is no sin.  Everyone who resides in him does not sin; everyone who sins has neither seen him nor known him.  Little children, let no one deceive you: The one who practices righteousness is righteous, just as Jesus is righteous.[21]  The Greek words translated practices above were not forms of πράσσω but forms of ποιέωThe one who [does] (ποιῶν, a form of ποιέω) righteousness is righteous, just as Jesus is righteous.

The One who does righteousness is the Holy Spirit.  He fills the new human born of God from above with God’s own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness[22] and self-control.[23]  By his will we have been made holy[24] through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.[25]  And the second point is like it: The “God of peace…will in fact do (ποιήσει, another form of ποιέω) this”:[26] make you completely holy and [keep] your spirit and soul and bodyentirely blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ[27] because He is trustworthy (πιστὸς, a form of πιστός).  I want to be one who [does] (ποιῶν, a form of ποιέω) the truth [who] comes to the light, so that it may be plainly evident that [my] deeds have been done in God.[28]

The one who practices sin is of the devil, John continued, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning.  For this purpose the Son of God was revealed: to destroy the works of the devil.  Everyone who has been fathered by God does not practice (ποιεῖ, another form of ποιέω) sin, because God’s seed resides in him, and thus he is not able to sin, because he has been fathered by God.[29]

The one who [does] (ποιεῖ, another form of ποιέω) sin is of the devil.  This is the old human: You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old (παλαιὸν, a form of παλαιός) [human] (ἄνθρωπον, a form of ἄνθρωπος) who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, to be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and to put on the new (καινὸν, a form of καινός) [human] (ἄνθρωπον, a form of ἄνθρωπος) who has been created in God’s image – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth.[30]  So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin.[31]

Though the new human is not able to sin, because he has been fathered by God, at any given moment one born from above might revert to walking according to the flesh, the old human, sin personified (Romans 7:14-23; 8:1-4 NET):

For we know that the law is spiritual – but I am unspiritual, sold into slavery to sin.  For I don’t understand what I am doing.  For I do not do what I want – instead, I do what I hate.  But if I do what I don’t want, I agree that the law is good.  But now it is no longer me doing it, but sin that lives in me.  For I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my flesh.  For I want to do the good, but I cannot[32] do it.  For I do not do the good I want, but I do the very evil I do not want!  Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer me doing it but sin that lives in me.

So, I find the law that when I want to do good, evil is present with me.  For I delight in the law of God in my inner being.  But I see a different law in my members waging war against the law of my mind and making me captive to[33] the law of sin that is in my members…

There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.[34]  For the law of the life-giving Spirit in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death.  For God achieved what the law could not do because it was weakened through the flesh.  By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, so that the righteous requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

Endure your suffering as discipline,[35] the author of Hebrews wrote.  Actually, your suffering was added by the translators.  The NET parallel Greek text and the Byzantine Majority Text began with εἰς.  A more literal translation would be “Into (or, unto) discipline endure.”  (The Stephanus Textus Receptus began with ει, translated If ye endure chastening.)  What one endures unto discipline was clearer a few verses prior (Hebrews 12:3 NET):

Think of him who endured such opposition against himself[36] by sinners, so that you may not grow weary in your souls and give up.

When I think of Jesus I think of others in opposition to Him, the sin in his own flesh was so marvelously controlled.  The old human has been the most obvious, nearest and dearest sinner whose opposition has been mine to endure.

A table of the occurrences of χωρὶς in the New Testament and its translation in the NET and KJV, and nine tables comparing Hebrews 9:24-28; 1 John 3:2-9; Galatians 5:22-23; Hebrews 10:10; Romans 7:25; Romans 7:14-23; Romans 8:1-4; Hebrews 12:7 and 12:3 in the NET and KJV follow.  I broke the latter tables when the NET parallel Greek text differed from the Stephanus Textus Receptus or the Byzantine Majority Text.

χωρὶς in the New Testament

Reference Greek NET KJV
Matthew 13:34 χωρὶς παραβολῆς without a parable without a parable
Matthew 14:21 χωρὶς γυναικῶν Not counting women beside women
Matthew 15:38 χωρὶς παιδίων (NET) / χωρις γυναικων (Stephanus Textus Receptus) Not counting children beside women
Mark 4:34 χωρὶς δὲ παραβολῆς without a parable without a parable
Luke 6:49 χωρὶς θεμελίου without a foundation without a foundation
John 1:3 χωρὶς αὐτοῦ apart from him without him
John 15:5 χωρὶς ἐμοῦ apart from me without me
John 20:7 χωρὶς by itself by itself
Romans 3:21 χωρὶς νόμου apart from the law without the law
Romans 3:28 χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου apart from the works of the law without the deeds of the law
Romans 4:6 χωρὶς ἔργων apart from works without works
Romans 7:8 χωρὶς γὰρ νόμου For apart from the law For without the law
Romans 7:9 χωρὶς νόμου apart from the law without the law
Romans 10:14 χωρὶς κηρύσσοντος without someone preaching without a preacher
1 Corinthians 4:8 χωρὶς ἡμῶν without us without us
1 Corinthians 11:11 χωρὶς ἀνδρὸς (NET) / χωρὶς γυναικὸς (Stephanus Textus Receptus) independent of man without the woman
χωρὶς γυναικὸς (NET) / χωρὶς ἀνδρὸς (Stephanus Textus Receptus) independent of woman without the man
2 Corinthians 11:28 χωρὶς τῶν παρεκτὸς Apart from other things Beside those things that are without
2 Corinthians 12:3 χωρὶς τοῦ σώματος (NET) / εκτος του σωματος (Stephanus Textus Receptus) apart from the body out of the body
Ephesians 2:12 χωρὶς Χριστοῦ without the Messiah without Christ
Philippians 2:14 χωρὶς γογγυσμῶν without grumbling without murmurings
1 Timothy 2:8 χωρὶς ὀργῆς without anger without wrath
1 Timothy 5:21 χωρὶς προκρίματος without prejudice without preferring one before another
Philemon 1:14 χωρὶς δὲ τῆς σῆς γνώμης However, without your consent But without thy mind
Hebrews 4:15 χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας yet without sin yet without sin
Hebrews 7:7 χωρὶς δὲ πάσης ἀντιλογίας Now without dispute And without all contradiction
Hebrews 7:20 χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας[37] done without a sworn affirmation without an oath
without a sworn affirmation without an oath (verse 21)
Hebrews 9:7 χωρὶς αἵματος without blood without blood
Hebrews 9:18 οὐδὲ…χωρὶς αἵματος / ουδ…χωρις αιματος (Stephanus Textus Receptus) with blood neither…without blood
Hebrews 9:22 χωρὶς αἱματεκχυσίας without the shedding of blood without shedding of blood
Hebrews 9:28 χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας not to bear sin without sin
Hebrews 10:28 χωρὶς οἰκτιρμῶν without mercy without mercy
Hebrews 11:6 χωρὶς δὲ πίστεως Now without faith But without faith
Hebrews 11:40 μὴ χωρὶς ἡμῶν together with us without us…not
Hebrews 12:8 χωρίς ἐστε παιδείας you do not experience discipline be without chastisement
Hebrews 12:14 οὗ χωρὶς for without it without which
James 2:18 χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων without works without thy works
James 2:20 χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων without works without works
James 2:26 χωρὶς πνεύματος without the spirit without the spirit
χωρὶς ἔργων / χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων (Stephanus Textus Receptus) without works without works
Hebrews 9:24-28 (NET)

Hebrews 9:24-28 (KJV)

For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation of the true sanctuary – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

οὐ γὰρ εἰς χειροποίητα εἰσῆλθεν ἅγια Χριστός, ἀντίτυπα τῶν ἀληθινῶν, ἀλλ᾿ εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν, νῦν ἐμφανισθῆναι τῷ προσώπῳ τοῦ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ου γαρ εις χειροποιητα αγια εισηλθεν ο χριστος αντιτυπα των αληθινων αλλ εις αυτον τον ουρανον νυν εμφανισθηναι τω προσωπω του θεου υπερ ημων ου γαρ εις χειροποιητα αγια εισηλθεν ο χριστος αντιτυπα των αληθινων αλλ εις αυτον τον ουρανον νυν εμφανισθηναι τω προσωπω του θεου υπερ ημων
And he did not enter to offer himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others;
for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world.  But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐπεὶ ἔδει αὐτὸν πολλάκις παθεῖν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου· νυνὶ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς ἀθέτησιν [τῆς] ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ πεφανέρωται επει εδει αυτον πολλακις παθειν απο καταβολης κοσμου νυν δε απαξ επι συντελεια των αιωνων εις αθετησιν αμαρτιας δια της θυσιας αυτου πεφανερωται επει εδει αυτον πολλακις παθειν απο καταβολης κοσμου νυν δε απαξ επι συντελεια των αιωνων εις αθετησιν αμαρτιας δια της θυσιας αυτου πεφανερωται
And just as people are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin but to bring salvation. So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ προσενεχθεὶς εἰς τὸ πολλῶν ἀνενεγκεῖν ἁμαρτίας ἐκ δευτέρου χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας ὀφθήσεται τοῖς αὐτὸν ἀπεκδεχομένοις εἰς σωτηρίαν. ουτως ο χριστος απαξ προσενεχθεις εις το πολλων ανενεγκειν αμαρτιας εκ δευτερου χωρις αμαρτιας οφθησεται τοις αυτον απεκδεχομενοις εις σωτηριαν ουτως και ο χριστος απαξ προσενεχθεις εις το πολλων ανενεγκειν αμαρτιας εκ δευτερου χωρις αμαρτιας οφθησεται τοις αυτον απεκδεχομενοις εις σωτηριαν
1 John 3:2-9 (NET)

1 John 3:2-9 (KJV)

Dear friends, we are God’s children now, and what we will be has not yet been revealed.  We know that whenever it is revealed we will be like him, because we will see him just as he is. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀγαπητοί, νῦν τέκνα θεοῦ ἐσμεν, καὶ οὔπω ἐφανερώθη τί ἐσόμεθα. οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἐὰν φανερωθῇ, ὅμοιοι αὐτῷ ἐσόμεθα, ὅτι ὀψόμεθα αὐτὸν καθώς ἐστιν αγαπητοι νυν τεκνα θεου εσμεν και ουπω εφανερωθη τι εσομεθα οιδαμεν δε οτι εαν φανερωθη ομοιοι αυτω εσομεθα οτι οψομεθα αυτον καθως εστιν αγαπητοι νυν τεκνα θεου εσμεν και ουπω εφανερωθη τι εσομεθα οιδαμεν δε οτι εαν φανερωθη ομοιοι αυτω εσομεθα οτι οψομεθα αυτον καθως εστιν
And everyone who has this hope focused on him purifies himself, just as Jesus is pure. And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.
Everyone who practices sin also practices lawlessness; indeed, sin is lawlessness. Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.
And you know that Jesus was revealed to take away (ἄρῃ, a form of αἴρω) sins, and in him there is no sin. And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

καὶ οἴδατε ὅτι ἐκεῖνος ἐφανερώθη, ἵνα τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἄρῃ, καὶ ἁμαρτία ἐν αὐτῷ οὐκ ἔστιν και οιδατε οτι εκεινος εφανερωθη ινα τας αμαρτιας ημων αρη και αμαρτια εν αυτω ουκ εστιν και οιδατε οτι εκεινος εφανερωθη ινα τας αμαρτιας ημων αρη και αμαρτια εν αυτω ουκ εστιν
Everyone who resides in him does not sin; everyone who sins has neither seen him nor known him. Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not: whosoever sinneth hath not seen him, neither known him.
Little children, let no one deceive you: The one who practices righteousness is righteous, just as Jesus is righteous. Little children, let no man deceive you: he that doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is righteous.
The one who practices sin is of the devil, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning.  For this purpose the Son of God was revealed: to destroy the works of the devil. He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning.  For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil.
Everyone who has been fathered by God does not practice sin, because God’s seed resides in him, and thus he is not able to sin, because he has been fathered by God. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.

Galatians 5:22, 23 (NET)

Galatians 5:22, 23 (KJV)

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,
gentleness, and self-control.  Against such things there is no law. Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

πραΰτης ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος πραοτης εγκρατεια κατα των τοιουτων ουκ εστιν νομος πραοτης εγκρατεια κατα των τοιουτων ουκ εστιν νομος

Hebrews 10:10 (NET)

Hebrews 10:10 (KJV)

By his will we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐν ᾧ θελήματι ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμὲν διὰ τῆς προσφορᾶς τοῦ σώματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐφάπαξ εν ω θεληματι ηγιασμενοι εσμεν οι δια της προσφορας του σωματος του ιησου χριστου εφαπαξ εν ω θεληματι ηγιασμενοι εσμεν οι δια της προσφορας του σωματος ιησου χριστου εφαπαξ
Romans 7:25 (NET)

Romans 7:25 (KJV)

Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord!  So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin. I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord.  So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

χάρις τῷ θεῷ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν. ῎Αρα οὖν αὐτὸς ἐγὼ τῷ μὲν νοὶ_ δουλεύω νόμῳ θεοῦ τῇ δὲ σαρκὶ νόμῳ ἁμαρτίας. ευχαριστω τω θεω δια ιησου χριστου του κυριου ημων αρα ουν αυτος εγω τω μεν νοι δουλευω νομω θεου τη δε σαρκι νομω αμαρτιας ευχαριστω τω θεω δια ιησου χριστου του κυριου ημων αρα ουν αυτος εγω τω μεν νοι δουλευω νομω θεου τη δε σαρκι νομω αμαρτιας

Romans 7:14-23 (NET)

Romans 7:14-23 (KJV)

For we know that the law is spiritual – but I am unspiritual, sold into slavery to sin. For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.
For I don’t understand what I am doing.  For I do not do what I want – instead, I do what I hate. For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I.
But if I do what I don’t want, I agree that the law is good. If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law that it is good.
But now it is no longer me doing it, but sin that lives in me. Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.
For I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my flesh.  For I want to do the good, but I cannot do it. For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ οἰκεῖ ἐν ἐμοί, τοῦτ᾿ ἔστιν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, ἀγαθόν· τὸ γὰρ θέλειν παράκειται μοι, τὸ δὲ κατεργάζεσθαι τὸ καλὸν οὔ οιδα γαρ οτι ουκ οικει εν εμοι τουτ εστιν εν τη σαρκι μου αγαθον το γαρ θελειν παρακειται μοι το δε κατεργαζεσθαι το καλον ουχ ευρισκω οιδα γαρ οτι ουκ οικει εν εμοι τουτ εστιν εν τη σαρκι μου αγαθον το γαρ θελειν παρακειται μοι το δε κατεργαζεσθαι το καλον ουχ ευρισκω
For I do not do the good I want, but I do the very evil I do not want! For the good that I would I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do.
Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer me doing it but sin that lives in me. Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.
So, I find the law that when I want to do good, evil is present with me. I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.
For I delight in the law of God in my inner being. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man:
But I see a different law in my members waging war against the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin that is in my members. But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

βλέπω δὲ ἕτερον νόμον ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν μου ἀντιστρατευόμενον τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ νοός μου καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζοντα με |ἐν| τῷ νόμῳ τῆς ἁμαρτίας τῷ ὄντι ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν μου βλεπω δε ετερον νομον εν τοις μελεσιν μου αντιστρατευομενον τω νομω του νοος μου και αιχμαλωτιζοντα με τω νομω της αμαρτιας τω οντι εν τοις μελεσιν μου βλεπω δε ετερον νομον εν τοις μελεσιν μου αντιστρατευομενον τω νομω του νοος μου και αιχμαλωτιζοντα με εν τω νομω της αμαρτιας τω οντι εν τοις μελεσιν μου
Romans 8:1-4 (NET)

Romans 8:1-4 (KJV)

There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ουδεν αρα νυν κατακριμα τοις εν χριστω ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα ουδεν αρα νυν κατακριμα τοις εν χριστω ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα
For the law of the life-giving Spirit in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.
For God achieved what the law could not do because it was weakened through the flesh. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:
so that the righteous requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
Hebrews 12:7 (NET)

Hebrews 12:7 (KJV)

Endure your suffering as discipline; God is treating you as sons.  For what son is there that a father does not discipline? If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not?

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

εἰς παιδείαν ὑπομένετε, ὡς υἱοῖς ὑμῖν προσφέρεται ὁ θεός. τίς γὰρ υἱὸς ὃν οὐ παιδεύει πατήρ ει παιδειαν υπομενετε ως υιοις υμιν προσφερεται ο θεος τις γαρ εστιν υιος ον ου παιδευει πατηρ εις παιδειαν υπομενετε ως υιοις υμιν προσφερεται ο θεος τις γαρ υιος εστιν ον ου παιδευει πατηρ
Hebrews 12:3 (NET)

Hebrews 12:3 (KJV)

Think of him who endured such opposition against himself by sinners, so that you may not grow weary in your souls and give up. For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀναλογίσασθε γὰρ τὸν τοιαύτην ὑπομεμενηκότα ὑπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν εἰς |ἑαυτὸν| ἀντιλογίαν, ἵνα μὴ κάμητε ταῖς ψυχαῖς ὑμῶν ἐκλυόμενοι αναλογισασθε γαρ τον τοιαυτην υπομεμενηκοτα υπο των αμαρτωλων εις αυτον αντιλογιαν ινα μη καμητε ταις ψυχαις υμων εκλυομενοι αναλογισασθε γαρ τον τοιαυτην υπομεμενηκοτα υπο των αμαρτωλων εις αυτον αντιλογιαν ινα μη καμητε ταις ψυχαις υμων εκλυομενοι

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] The Greek word translated to come in the NET parallel Greek text was γενομένων (a form of γίνομαι).  In the Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority texts it was μελλοντων (a form of μέλλω).

[4] Hebrews 9:11,12 (NET)

[5] NET note (34): “Grk ‘without sin,’ but in context this does not refer to Christ’s sinlessness (as in Heb 4:15) but to the fact that sin is already dealt with by his first coming.”  My actual question was whether χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας (without sin) referred to those who eagerly await him.  I didn’t discover anything that would allow me to propose that argument in the face of those who know Greek syntax better than I do.

[6] A 2nd aorist active infinitive form of the verb ἀναφέρω

[7] An aorist active indicative 3rd person singular form of the verb ἀναφέρω

[8] Exodus 34:6, 7 (Tanakh)

[9] The NET parallel Greek text had εἰρηκέναι here, a perfect active infinitive form of ῥέω according to the Koine Greek Lexicon (a form of ἐρέω according to BibleHub).  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had προειρηκεναι, a perfect active infinitive form of προερέω.

[10] The NET parallel Greek text had διάνοιαν here, an accusative singular feminine form of διάνοια.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had διανοιων, a genitive plural feminine form of διάνοια according to the Koine Greek Lexicon.

[11] The NET parallel Greek text had μνησθήσομαι here, a form of μιμνήσκω in the indicative mood (though the word “μνησθήσομαι” in the parallel Greek text of the NET for Hebrews 10:17 highlights as, and links to, μνάομαι).  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had μνησθω, another form of μιμνήσκω in the subjunctive mood, the same as the Septuagint and the full quotation in Hebrews 8:11, 12.
In the Septuagint and the full quotation this is not an issue: “if the subjunctive mood is used in a purpose or result clause, then the action should not be thought of as a possible result, but should be viewed as a definite outcome that will happen as a result of another stated action” (from Subjunctive Mood).  Isolated as it is in verse 17, however, μὴ μνησθω ἔτι would mean something like “I might remember no longer” while μὴ μνησθήσομαι ἔτι would translate “I will remember no longer.”

[12] In the Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text this clause began with δε (KJV: but).  It is absent in the NET parallel Greek text.

[13] 1 John 3:2, 3 (NET)

[14] John 11:55 (NET)

[15] Acts 21:23b, 24a (NET)

[16] Acts 21:26 (NET)

[17] 1 Peter 1:22a (NET)

[18] Romans 8:14 (NET)

[19] Galatians 5:16 (NET)

[20] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αμαρτιας ημων here (KJV: our sins).  The NET parallel Greek text had simply αμαρτιας.

[21] 1 John 3:4-7 (NET)

[22] The NET parallel Greek text had πραΰτης here, which was also spelled πραοτης in the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text.

[23] Galatians 5:22, 23 (NET)

[24] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had οι here, which was absent from the NET parallel Greek text.

[25] Hebrews 10:10 (NET)

[26] 1 Thessalonians 5:24 (NET)

[27] 1 Thessalonians 5:23 (NET)

[28] John 3:21 (NET)

[29] 1 John 3:8, 9 (NET)

[30] Ephesians 4:22-24 (NET)

[31] Romans 7:25b (NET)

[32] The NET parallel Greek text had οὔ here where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ουχ ευρισκω.

[33] The NET parallel Greek text and Byzantine Majority Text had ἐν here where the Stephanus Textus Receptus did not.

[34] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα (KJV: who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit) while the NET parallel Greek text did not.

[35] Hebrews 12:7a (NET)

[36] The NET parallel Greek text had ἑαυτὸν here where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αυτον.

[37] The second occurrence of χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας was in verse 21 of the Stephanus Textus Receptus and King James translation, while both were in verse 20 in the NET parallel Greek text and Byzantine Majority Text.

Atonement, Part 3

I’ll continue to consider yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]

The Hebrew word translated to consecrate was למלא (mâlêʼ).  In the Septuagint למלא (mâlêʼ) was translated τελειῶσαι τὰς χεῖρας, “validate their hands” in an English translation of the Septuagint (NETS).  And τελειῶσαι (a form of τελειόω) was translated to perfect in: For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship.[3]

There isn’t a lot of wiggle room in the meaning of τελειῶσαι here.  If the sacrifices had perfected those who came to worship, the sacrifices would have ceased to be offered long before the temple was destroyed: For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have no further consciousness of sin?[4]  John wrote (1 John 1:5-2:6 NET):

Now this is the gospel message[5] we have heard from him and announce to you: God is light, and in him there is no darkness at all.  If we say we have fellowship with him and yet keep on walking in the darkness, we are lying and not practicing the truth.  But if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another and the blood of Jesus[6] his Son cleanses us from all sin.  If we say we do not bear the guilt of sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us.  But if we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous, forgiving us our sins and cleansing us from all unrighteousness.  If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar and his word is not in us.  (My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin.)  But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous One, and he himself is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for our sins but also for the whole world.

Now by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep (τηρῶμεν, a form of τηρέω) his commandments.  The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep (τηρῶν, another form of τηρέω) his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person.  But whoever obeys (τηρῇ, another form of τηρέω) his word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected (τετελείωται, another form of τελειόω).  By this we know that we are in him.  The one who says he resides in God ought (ὀφείλει,[7] a form of ὀφείλω) himself to walk[8] just as Jesus walked.

If I fall back on my own strength the obligation to walk just as Jesus walked will fill me first with fear, then defensiveness, anger and eventually a pervasive desire to “chuck this whole religion thing.”  So I plan to be very gentle with myself.  I want to keep foremost in my mind the two points from the previous essay: 1) By his will we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all;[9] and, 2) he will in fact do this:[10]make you completely holy and…[keep] your spirit and soul and bodyentirely blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.[11]

If I’m honest my fear stems from my offended pride when I fail to walk just as Jesus walked in my own strength.  So I want to consider that pride.  Aaron and his sons[12] were commanded to eat those things by which atonement was made to consecrate and to set them apart.  No one else could eat them, for they are holy.  For the moment it doesn’t really matter whether they meant the things by which atonement was made or Aaron and his sons or all of the above.  In any case Aaron and his sons were distinguished from everyone else in Israel by this holiness.  But how proud could they be about that?

Exodus 29:4-9 (NET)

Leviticus 8:6-13 (NET)

You are to present Aaron and his sons at the entrance of the tent of meeting.  You are to wash them with water… So Moses brought Aaron and his sons forward and washed them with water.
…and take the garments and clothe Aaron with the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod, and the breastpiece; you are to fasten the ephod on him by using the skillfully woven waistband. Then he put the tunic on Aaron, wrapped the sash around him, and clothed him with the robe.  Next he put the ephod on him and placed on him the decorated band of the ephod, and fastened the ephod closely to him with the band.
Exodus 28:30 He then set the breastpiece on him and put the Urim and Thummim into the breastpiece.
You are to put the turban on his head and put the holy diadem on the turban. Finally, he set the turban on his head and attached the gold plate, the holy diadem, to the front of the turban just as the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) had commanded Moses.
Exodus 30:22-33 Then Moses took the anointing oil and anointed the tabernacle and everything in it, and so consecrated (qâdash, ויקדש; Septuagint: ἡγίασεν, another form of ἁγιάζω) them.
Next he sprinkled some of it on the altar seven times and so anointed the altar, all its vessels, and the wash basin and its stand to consecrate (qâdash, לקדשם; Septuagint: ἡγίασεν, another form of ἁγιάζω) them.
You are to take the anointing oil and pour it on his head and anoint him. He then poured some of the anointing oil on the head of Aaron and anointed him to consecrate (qâdash, לקדשו; Septuagint: ἡγίασεν, another form of ἁγιάζω) him.
You are to present his sons and clothe them with tunics… Moses also brought forward Aaron’s sons, clothed them with tunics, wrapped sashes around them, and wrapped headbands on them just as the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) had commanded Moses.
…and wrap the sashes around Aaron and his sons and put headbands on them, and so the ministry of priesthood will belong to them by a perpetual ordinance.  Thus you are to consecrate (mâlêʼ, ומלאת: Septuagint: τελειώσεις,[13] another form of τελειόω) Aaron and his sons.

Aaron and his sons were distinguished in holiness because they stood there while Moses performed yehôvâh’s prescribed rituals to them and around them.  Now to the one who works, Paul wrote believers in Rome, his pay is not credited due to grace but due to obligation (ὀφείλημα).  But to the one who does not work, but believes in the one who declares the ungodly righteous, his faith is credited as righteousness.[14]  The Pharisees on the other hand said, None of the rulers or the Pharisees have believed in [Jesus], have they?  But this rabble who do not know the law are accursed![15]

This is very interesting in this context.  The priests were made holy by atonement rituals prescribed by yehôvâhThe only holiness the Pharisees could legitimately[16] claim was atonement made by priests performing rituals prescribed by yehôvâh.  Yet they distinguished themselves from the rabble[17] (ὄχλος) here, not by these rituals, but by knowledge of the law.  To seek out some other distinction was a tacit acknowledgement that the law was completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship.  So in a sense they were on the right track as it pertained to recognizing a need.

I don’t intend to minimize the value of knowing the law as a means to knowing the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom [He] sent.[18]  As the Psalmist wrote (Psalm 119:33-40 Tanakh):

Teach me, O LORD (yehôvâh,יהוה), the way of thy statutes; and I shall keep it unto the end.

Give me understanding, and I shall keep thy law; yea, I shall observe it with my whole heart.

Make me to go in the path of thy commandments; for therein do I delight.

Incline my heart unto thy testimonies, and not to covetousness.

Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity; and quicken thou me in thy way.

Stablish thy word unto thy servant, who is devoted to thy fear.

Turn away my reproach which I fear: for thy judgments are good.

Behold, I have longed after thy precepts: quicken me in thy righteousness.

But to claim knowledge of the law as a means of distinction, rendering one more holy than one who does not know it, is to not know the law: For all who rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law.[19]  Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them.  And all the people shall say: Amen.[20]  For all who have sinned apart from the law will also perish apart from the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law.[21]

Cursed in the phrase Cursed is everyone was ἐπικατάρατος in Greek.  The Greek word translated accursed in this rabble who do not know the law are accursed was ἐπάρατοι (a form of ἐπικατάρατος).  In other words, those who know the law are as accursed as those who do not because… (Romans 3:10-18 NET):

…just as it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one, there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God.  All have turned away, together they have become worthless; there is no one who shows kindness, not even one.[22]

Their throats are open graves, they deceive with their tongues, the poison of asps is under their lips.[23]

Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.[24]

Their feet are swift to shed blood, ruin and misery are in their paths, and the way of peace they have not known.[25]

There is no fear of God before their eyes.[26]

So how proud should I, a Gentile, be, recognizing that: 1) by [Israel’s] transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make Israel jealous;[27] 2) They were broken off because of their unbelief, but [I] stand by faith; Do not be arrogant, but fear; For if God did not spare the natural branches, perhaps he will not spare [me];[28] 3) [I] have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous One, and he himself is the atoning sacrifice for [my] sins, and not only for [my] sins but also for the whole world;[29] and, 4) Jesus Christ the righteous One promised, “And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself”[30]?

It is past time that I give up my pride, quit trying to distinguish myself from others by some holiness I have achieved rather than received, and start gathering with Jesus rather than scattering (Matthew 12:30-32).  So then, it does not depend on human desire or exertion, but on God who shows mercy.[31]  Just as you were formerly disobedient to God, but have now received mercy due to their disobedience, so they too have now been disobedient in order that, by the mercy shown to you, they too may now receive mercy.  For God has consigned all people to disobedience so that he may show mercy to them all.[32]

The righteous never expected to keep the law in his or her own strength but in the power and presence of God (Psalm 51 Tanakh):

Have mercy upon me, O God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים), according to thy lovingkindness: according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions.

Wash me throughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.

For I acknowledge my transgressions: and my sin is ever before me.

Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight: that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest.

Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me (Genesis 5:1-5; Romans 5:12-21).

Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts: and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to know wisdom.

Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

Make me to hear joy and gladness; that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice.

Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities.

Create in me a clean heart, O God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים); and renew a right spirit within me.

Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me.

Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit.

Then will I teach transgressors thy ways; and sinners shall be converted unto thee.

Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים), thou God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהי) of my salvation: and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness.

O Lord (ʼădônây, אדני), open thou my lips; and my mouth shall shew forth thy praise.

For thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I give it: thou delightest not in burnt offering.

The sacrifices of God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים), thou wilt not despise.

Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion: build thou the walls of Jerusalem.

Then shalt thou be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness, with burnt offering and whole burnt offering: then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar.

A table comparing the NET and KJV translation of 1 John 1:5-2:6 follows.  I broke the table whenever the NET parallel Greek text differed from the Stephanus Textus Receptus or the Byzantine Majority Text.

1 John 1:5-2:6 (NET)

1 John 1:5-2:6 (KJV)

Now this is the gospel message we have heard from him and announce to you: God is light, and in him there is no darkness at all. This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Καὶ ἔστιν αὕτη ἡ ἀγγελία ἣν ἀκηκόαμεν ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀναγγέλλομεν ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ θεὸς φῶς ἐστιν καὶ σκοτία |ἐν αὐτῷ| οὐκ ἔστιν  οὐδεμία και αυτη εστιν η επαγγελια ην ακηκοαμεν απ αυτου και αναγγελλομεν υμιν οτι ο θεος φως εστιν και σκοτια εν αυτω ουκ εστιν ουδεμια και εστιν αυτη η αγγελια ην ακηκοαμεν απ αυτου και αναγγελλομεν υμιν οτι ο θεος φως εστιν και σκοτια εν αυτω ουκ εστιν ουδεμια
If we say we have fellowship with him and yet keep on walking in the darkness, we are lying and not practicing the truth. If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth:
But if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin. But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐὰν δὲ ἐν τῷ φωτὶ περιπατῶμεν ὡς αὐτός ἐστιν ἐν τῷ φωτί, κοινωνίαν ἔχομεν μετ᾿ ἀλλήλων καὶ τὸ αἷμα Ἰησοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ καθαρίζει ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἁμαρτίας εαν δε εν τω φωτι περιπατωμεν ως αυτος εστιν εν τω φωτι κοινωνιαν εχομεν μετ αλληλων και το αιμα ιησου χριστου του υιου αυτου καθαριζει ημας απο πασης αμαρτιας εαν δε εν τω φωτι περιπατωμεν ως αυτος εστιν εν τω φωτι κοινωνιαν εχομεν μετ αλληλων και το αιμα ιησου χριστου του υιου αυτου καθαριζει ημας απο πασης αμαρτιας
If we say we do not bear the guilt of sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
But if we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous, forgiving us our sins and cleansing us from all unrighteousness. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar and his word is not in us. If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.
(My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin.)  But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous One, My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not.  And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:
and he himself is the atoning sacrifice (ἱλασμός) for our sins, and not only for our sins but also for the whole world. And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.
Now by this we know that we have come to know God: if we keep his commandments. And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.
The one who says “I have come to know God” and yet does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in such a person. He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him.
But whoever obeys his word, truly in this person the love of God has been perfected. By this we know that we are in him. But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby know we that we are in him.
The one who says he resides in God ought himself to walk just as Jesus walked. He that saith he abideth in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked.

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Hebrews 10:1 (NET)

[4] Hebrews 10:2 (NET)

[5] In the NET parallel Greek text and the Byzantine Majority Text the word translated gospel message was ἀγγελία while it was επαγγελια in the Stephanus Textus Receptus.

[6] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the word χριστου here, while the NET parallel Greek text did not.

[7] http://www.greekdoc.com/lexicon/of.html#ofeilw

[8] The Greek verbs translated walk and walked were περιπατεῖν and περιεπάτησεν respectively.  Both are forms of περιπατέω.  By simply tracking select forms of περιπατέω I found that Paul and the Holy Spirit left a fairly detailed description of what it means to walk just as Jesus walked: περιπατῆσαι, Colossians 1:9-14; περιπατήσωμεν, Romans 6:1-4; περιπατήσωμεν, Ephesians 2:4-10; περιπατῆτε, 1 Thessalonians 4:9-12; περιπατεῖτε, Ephesians 5:1-21, Colossians 2:6-23, Colossians 4:2-6; περιπατεῖν (also περιπατεῖτε), 1 Thessalonians 4:1-8; περιπατείτω, 1 Corinthians 7:17-24; περιπατοῦμεν, 2 Corinthians 5:1-10; περιπατοῦσιν, Romans 8:1-17.  Perhaps most to the point is Galatians 5:16But I say, live (περιπατεῖτε) by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desires of the flesh.

[9] Hebrews 10:10 (NET)

[10] 1 Thessalonians 5:24b (NET)

[11] 1 Thessalonians 5:23 (NET)

[12] Exodus 28:43 (NET)

[13] τελειώσεις τὰς χεῖρας, “validate the hands” (NETS)

[14] Romans 4:4, 5 (NET)

[15] John 7:48, 49 (NET)

[16] from Pharisees: “Emergence of the Pharisees
After defeating the Seleucid forces, Judas Maccabaeus’s nephew John Hyrcanus established a new monarchy in the form of the priestly Hasmonean dynasty in 152 BCE, thus establishing priests as political as well as religious authorities. Although the Hasmoneans were considered heroes for resisting the Seleucids, their reign lacked the legitimacy conferred by descent from the Davidic dynasty of the First Temple era.[16]
The Pharisee (“separatist”) party emerged largely out of the group of scribes and sages…
Sadducees rejected the Pharisaic tenet of an Oral Torah. In their personal lives this often meant an excessively stringent lifestyle from a Jewish perspective, as they did away with the oral tradition, and in turn the Pharisaic understanding of the Torah, creating two Jewish understandings of the Torah. An example of this differing approach is the interpretation of, “an eye in place of an eye”. The Pharisaic understanding was that the value of an eye was to be paid by the perpetrator.[20] In the Sadducees’ view the words were given a more literal interpretation, in which the offender’s eye would be removed.[21] From the point of view of the Pharisees, the Sadducees wished to change the Jewish understanding of the Torah, to a Greek understanding of the Torah. The Pharisees preserved the Pharisaical oral law in the form of the Talmud. They would become the foundation of Rabbinic Judaism…
The Hasmonean period
After the death of John Hyrcanus his younger son Alexander Jannaeus made himself king and openly sided with the Sadducees by adopting their rites in the Temple. His actions caused a riot in the Temple and led to a brief civil war that ended with a bloody repression of the Pharisees. However, on his deathbed Jannaeus advised his widow, Salome Alexandra, to seek reconciliation with the Pharisees.
The Roman period
According to Josephus, the Pharisees appeared before Pompey asking him to interfere and restore the old priesthood while abolishing the royalty of the Hasmoneans altogether (“Ant.” xiv. 3, § 2). Pharisees also opened Jerusalem’s gates to the Romans, and actively supported them against the Sadducean faction.[26] When the Romans finally broke the entrance to the Jerusalem’s Temple, the Pharisees killed the priests who were officiating the Temple services on Saturday.[27] They regarded Pompey’s defilement of the Temple in Jerusalem as a divine punishment of Sadducean misrule.

[17] In John 7:40 ὄχλου (a form of ὄχλος; translated of the crowd) was used without any pejorative connotation.  The translators may have added more emphasis to the distinction than the Pharisees actually intended.  The point still stands that they distinguished themselves from the crowd, not by yehôvâh’s prescribed rituals, but by their own knowledge of the law.

[18] John 17:3b (NET)

[19] Galatians 3:10 (NET)

[20] Deuteronomy 27:26 (Tanakh)

[21] Romans 2:12 (NET)

[22] The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God.  They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.  The LORD looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God.  They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one (Psalm 14:1-3 Tanakh).

[23] For there is no faithfulness in their mouth; their inward part is very wickedness; their throat is an open sepulchre; they flatter with their tongue (Psalm 5:9 Tanakh).  They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent; adders’ poison is under their lips.  Selah (Psalm 140:3 Tanakh).

[24] His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief and vanity (Psalm 10:7 Tanakh).

[25] Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood: their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity; wasting and destruction are in their paths.  The way of peace they know not; and there is no judgment in their goings: they have made them crooked paths: whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace (Isaiah 59:7, 8 Tanakh).

[26] The transgression of the wicked saith within my heart, that there is no fear of God before his eyes (Psalm 36:1 Tanakh).

[27] Romans 11:11b (NET)

[28] Romans 11:20, 21 (NET)

[29] 1 John 2:1b, 2 (NET)

[30] John 12:32 (NET)

[31] Romans 9:16 (NET)

[32] Romans 11:30-32 (NET)

Atonement, Part 2

The next occurrence of כפר (kâphar), translated atonement, I want to consider on this pilgrimage is found in yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses (Exodus 29:33 NET):

[Aaron and his sons[1]] are to eat those things by which atonement was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.

In the Septuagint כפר (kâphar) was translated ἡγιάσθησαν (a form of ἁγιάζω).  Though ἡγιάσθησαν doesn’t occur in the New Testament, other forms of ἁγιάζω do.  I’ll try to be mindful of similarities between old covenant and new covenant atonement as well as differences.  So many concepts appear in this verse—to consecrate and to set them apartthey are holy—I want to back up and take a run at it.

The Hebrew word translated to set them apart was לקדש (qâdash). It was translated ἁγιάσαι (another form of ἁγιάζω) in the Septuagint“Now this is what you are to do for them to consecrate them,” yehôvâh instructed Moses, “so that they may minister as my priests.”[2]  The Hebrew word translated to consecrate was also לקדש, the very same form of qâdash as to set them apart above.  And in the Septuagint it was also translated ἁγιάσαι.  The new covenant is quite similar.

1 Thessalonians 5:23, 24 (NET)

1 Thessalonians 5:23, 24 (KJV)

Now may the God of peace himself make you completely holy (ἁγιάσαι, another form of ἁγιάζω) and may your spirit and soul and body be kept entirely blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. And the very God of peace sanctify (ἁγιάσαι, another form of ἁγιάζω) you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
He who calls you is trustworthy, and he will in fact do this (ποιήσει, a form of ποιέω). Faithful is he that calleth you, who also will do it.

Both ἁγιάσαι and τηρηθείη (a form of τηρέω; translated maybe kept [NET] and I pray Godbe preserved [KJV]) are in the optative mood, the “mood of possibility.”  Both verbs recognize that one’s actual state may be far removed from holiness, sanctification and blamelessness at a given moment.  But ποιήσει (translated he will in fact do [NET] and who also will do [KJV]) is in the indicative mood, “a statement of fact” based on the trustworthiness or faithfulness of God in Christ.  Even more precious to me, ποιήσει is future tense in the active voice.

I was one who misunderstood the “finished work of Christ” as an invitation to a do-it-yourself works religion.  Since Christ was finished working, I reasoned, the rest of the distance between my current condition and his holiness and blamelessness was up to me, a race for me to run.  I don’t think my pastor intended to enroll me in a works religion, except…I wonder if I, sitting idly “trusting” Jesus, could ever have understood the word of God.  Or was it the desire to do his will combined with my failure to do his will that opened my mind to it?  Jesus said, If anyone wants to do God’s will, he will know about my teaching, whether it is from God or whether I speak from my own authority.[3]

This epistemological aspect intrigues the philosophical bent of my mind.  I earn a living on the fringes of a conference industry that, viewed economically or technologically, shouldn’t exist.  Gathering in one location wastes human resources, both time and money, now that the technology exists to meet virtually.  But viewed epistemologically conferences are extremely valuable.  A group of people pressed together, smelling one another, espousing the same or similar opinions can more easily convince themselves that their opinions are true.  The larger the group the “truer” their opinions are until that critical moment when the group fractures into disparate opinions.

I was born into evangelicalism as an established group, revealed truth.  But it grew to prominence in the U.S. from many streams:

According to religion scholar, social activist, and politician Randall Balmer, Evangelicalism resulted “from the confluence of Pietism, Presbyterianism, and the vestiges of Puritanism.  Evangelicalism picked up the peculiar characteristics from each strain – warmhearted spirituality from the Pietists (for instance), doctrinal precisionism from the Presbyterians, and individualistic introspection from the Puritans”.[40]  Historian Mark Noll adds to this list High Church Anglicanism, which contributed to Evangelicalism a legacy of “rigorous spirituality and innovative organization”.[41]

In the 1730s, Evangelicalism emerged as a distinct phenomenon out of religious revivals that began in Britain and New England.  While religious revivals had occurred within Protestant churches in the past, the evangelical revivals that marked the 18th century were more intense and radical.[48]  Evangelical revivalism imbued ordinary men and women with a confidence and enthusiasm for sharing the gospel and converting others outside of the control of established churches, a key discontinuity with the Protestantism of the previous era.[49]

It was developments in the doctrine of assurance that differentiated Evangelicalism from what went before.

Before his conversion to evangelicalism, which we evangelicals assume to be synonymous with a conversion to Christ, John Wesley wrote, “I hope he has died to save me.”[60]  “About a quarter before nine,” Wesley recalled his conversion, “while [the speaker] was describing the change which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart strangely warmed.  I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone[4] for salvation, and an assurance was given me that he had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.”[61]

Evangelical preachers emphasized personal salvation and piety more than ritual and tradition.  Pamphlets and printed sermons crisscrossed the Atlantic, encouraging the revivalists.[64]  The Awakening resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ.  Pulling away from ritual and ceremony, the Great Awakening made Christianity intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality.  It reached people who were already church members.  It changed their rituals, their piety and their self-awareness.

By the time I arrived on the scene those new rituals, piety and self-awareness were nothing more than the ritual and tradition of a bygone era.  And the critical epistemological moment had passed: evangelicalism had already fractured into many disparate opinions.  Though Berger and Luckmann denied[5] it for adults, the teachings of any given religious sect are as much a part of the paramount reality[6] for children who grew up in it as anything an adult does at work.[7]

Though the relatively mindless taken-for-granted-ness[8] of the reality of everyday life shares some of the same blindness (Isaiah 42:18-25) to alternatives as religious faith, it was not faith in Christ in my case.  And apparently, part of my attempt to reinsert myself into the church I had abandoned and the mindless-taken-for-granted-ness of my youth, what I have called “fighting my way back from atheism,”[9] was like Cypher’s (Joe Pantoliano) attempt to be reinserted into The Matrix.  When my pastor lamented that most people came to Christ as children rather than as adults I nodded my “Amen” despite my anomalous personal history.

Now it seems obvious that there is no intrinsic reason that God would be merciful to children but not to adults.  An eternal life knowing the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom [He] sent,[10] living his own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control,[11] should be more appealing to those who have been around awhile and have had their fill of sin than to those for whom everything is still new and interesting.  I don’t doubt the accuracy of my pastor’s reflections on his experience.  But the truth behind that actuality seems to be that nearly three centuries of dumbing eternal life down to gaining heaven (or its corollary, escaping hell) has blunted the effectiveness of the gospel presented by evangelicalism.

“Evangelical revivalism” may have “imbued ordinary men and women with a confidence and enthusiasm for sharing the gospel” in its early days.  But by the time I was born into it “sharing the gospel” had become a necessary condition for belonging to the group.  As such, there were many aids, tips, tricks and techniques to make it easier for any Peter, Paul and Mary to “share the gospel.”  So we drowned the voices of God-gifted apostles and evangelists (Ephesians 4:11-16) in a sea of gospel peddlers promoting Jesus as a means to an end.  Even that end is now largely imaginary.  What is heaven, after all, but knowing the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom [He] sent, face to face, living his own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-controlforever?

In an opinion piece on Fox News Chris Sonksen cited Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s concept of a “wish dream” from his book Life Together:

Every human wish dream that is injected into the Christian community is a hindrance to genuine community and must be banished if genuine community is to survive.  He who loves his dream of a community more than the Christian community itself becomes a destroyer of the latter, even though his personal intentions may be ever so honest and earnest and sacrificial.

Bonhoeffer’s wish dream intrigues me because of my own running feud with “the pursuit of happiness.”  Pegging my happiness to a fantasy of my own mind—I will be happy if…—was at best nonsensical and at worst a diabolical prescription for unhappiness.  Even when I have achieved my goals happiness was no longer-lived than that which one should expect from such achievement.  It has proven far better to pursue Christ (Philippians 3:8-11) and his righteousness, and let happiness float freely with the ups and downs of life.  Now I’m mostly happy.

Pastor Sonksen’s point was:

God did not wire us to be alone.  We are truly better together.  It’s in community that we grow, are challenged, stretched, and inspired to truly live for Jesus.  It’s messy, difficult, and at times frustrating…but it’s so worth it.

All true, though I would tend to credit the Holy Spirit, filling me with God’s own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control toward others, over the mere fact of being in community with them.  Pastor Sonksen wasn’t referring to the communities most of us actually live and work in, however.  (Admittedly, my community is more transient and geographically dispersed than most.)  His plea was to the once a week, twice a week, thrice a week meetings (ἐπισυναγωγὴν, a form of ἐπισυναγωγή) of a contemporary church for the purpose of encouraging (παρακαλοῦντες, a form of παρακαλέω), inciting (παροξυσμὸν) one another on to love and [beautiful] (καλῶν, a form of καλός) works.[12]

One hopes that a pastor lives in that eternal life of knowing the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom [He] sent, buoyed up in God’s own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control by the Holy Spirit and his own immersion in scripture.  As such, he may be the last to recognize that the church he pastors enforces—by its rituals and traditions, by the way things are done, by the relatively mindless taken-for-granted-ness of the reality of everyday life within its walls—a lesser form of spirituality than being led by the Holy Spirit.

I don’t know Pastor Sonksen or South Hills Church.  I can’t say this is the case there.  I’m recognizing the possibility from my own past.  But it is the wish dream of every pastor that God will make his congregation completely holy and keep their spirit and soul and body entirely blameless through the well-ordered operation of the church he pastors.

The similarity between the atonement of Aaron and his sons to consecrate and to set them apart and our atonement is that it required no work on Aaron’s part or of his sons, only submission to God’s word (Exodus 29) and Moses’ ministry of that word (Leviticus 8).  The difference is clearly stated in the text (Exodus 29:1b-3 NET):

Take a young bull and two rams without blemish; and bread made without yeast, and perforated cakes without yeast mixed with oil, and wafers without yeast spread with oil – you are to make them using fine wheat flour.  You are to put them in one basket and present them in the basket, along with the bull and the two rams.

We are no longer made holy, consecrated or set apart by bulls or rams or bread or cakes or wafers without yeast, mixed with oil or spread with oil (Hebrews 10:1-10 NET).

For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality (εἰκόνα, a form of εἰκών) itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect (τελειῶσαι, a form of τελειόω) those who come to worship.  For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have no further consciousness (συνείδησιν, a form of συνείδησις) of sin?  But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year after year.  For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away (ἀφαιρεῖν, a form of ἀφαιρέω) sins.  So when he came into the world, he said, “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

Then I said, Here I am: I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’”

When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” (which are offered according to the law), then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.”  He does away (ἀναιρεῖ, a form of ἀναιρέω) with the first to establish (στήσῃ, a form of ἵστημι) the second.  By his will we have been made holy (ἡγιασμένοι, another form of ἁγιάζω) through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

So the finished work of Christ is that we have been made holy through the offering of [his] bodyonce for all.  The ongoing work the God of peacewill in fact do because He is trustworthy seems to be the breaking down of my resistance (Hebrews 12:5-13) to Him and his will and the truth of his word, filling me instead with faith in Him and his word, so that the holiness I have been made through the offering of his body once for all is manifest to me, and to others, here and now.  That God will do (ποιήσει, a form of ποιέω) this is quite evocative of the doer (ποιηταὶ, a form of ποιητής) of the law and of the one who practices the truth [who] comes to the light, so that it may be plainly evident that his deeds have been done (εἰργασμένα, a form of ἐργάζομαι) in God.[13]

A table comparing Hebrews 10:1-10 in the NET and KJV follows.  If the parallel Greek of the NET differs from the Stephanus Textus Receptus or the Byzantine Majority Text I broke the table to highlight that difference.

Hebrews 10:1-9 (NET)

Hebrews 10:1-9 (KJV)

For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.
For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have no further consciousness of sin? For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.
But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year after year. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year.
For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.
So when he came into the world, he said, “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me. Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me:
“Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in. In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure.
“Then I said, ‘Here I am: I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God.
When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” (which are offered according to the law), Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law;

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἀνώτερον λέγων ὅτι θυσίας[14] καὶ προσφορὰς[15] καὶ ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ἠθέλησας οὐδὲ εὐδόκησας (αἵτινες κατὰ νόμον προσφέρονται) ανωτερον λεγων οτι θυσιαν[16] και προσφοραν[17] και ολοκαυτωματα και περι αμαρτιας ουκ ηθελησας ουδε ευδοκησας αιτινες κατα τον νομον προσφερονται ανωτερον λεγων οτι θυσιαν και προσφοραν και ολοκαυτωματα και περι αμαρτιας ουκ ηθελησας ουδε ευδοκησας αιτινες κατα τον νομον προσφερονται
then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.”  He does away with the first to establish the second. Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

τότε εἴρηκεν· ἰδοὺ ἥκω τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημα σου. ἀναιρεῖ τὸ πρῶτον ἵνα τὸ δεύτερον στήσῃ τοτε ειρηκεν ιδου ηκω του ποιησαι ο θεος το θελημα σου αναιρει το πρωτον ινα το δευτερον στηση τοτε ειρηκεν ιδου ηκω του ποιησαι ο θεος το θελημα σου αναιρει το πρωτον ινα το δευτερον στηση
Hebrews 10:10 (NET)

Hebrews 10:10 (KJV)

By his will we have been made holy (ἡγιασμένοι,[18] another form of ἁγιάζω) through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

Net Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐν ᾧ θελήματι ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμὲν διὰ τῆς προσφορᾶς τοῦ σώματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐφάπαξ εν ω θεληματι ηγιασμενοι εσμεν οι[19] δια της προσφορας του σωματος του[20] ιησου χριστου εφαπαξ εν ω θεληματι ηγιασμενοι εσμεν οι δια της προσφορας του σωματος ιησου χριστου εφαπαξ

[1] Exodus 28:43 (NET)

[2] Exodus 29:1a (NET)

[3] John 7:17 (NET)

[4] “Christ alone” is so much better an expression than “faith alone” with its scriptural association to dead faith: But would you like evidence, you empty fellow, that faith without works is useless?  Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar?  You see that his faith was working together with his works and his faith was perfected (ἐτελειώθη, a form of τελειόω) by works.  And the scripture was fulfilled (ἐπληρώθη, a form of πληρόω) that says, “Now Abraham believed God and it was counted to him for righteousness,” and he was called God’s friend.  You see that a person is justified by works and not by faith alone.  And similarly, was not Rahab the prostitute also justified by works when she welcomed the messengers and sent them out by another way?  For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead (James 2:20-26 NET).

[5] “All finite provinces of meaning are characterized by a turning away of attention from the reality of everyday life. While there are, of course, shifts in attention within everyday life, the shift to a finite province of meaning is of a much more radical kind. A radical change takes place in the tension of consciousness. In the context of religious experience this has been aptly called ‘leaping’. It is important to stress, however, that the reality of everyday life retains its paramount status even as such ‘leaps’ take place.”

Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, “The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge,” 1966, p. 39

[6] “Compared to the reality of everyday life, other realities appear as finite provinces of meaning, enclaves within the paramount reality marked by circumscribed meanings and modes of experience. The paramount reality envelops them on all sides, as it were, and consciousness always returns to the paramount reality as from an excursion.”

Ibid., p. 39

[7] “Closest to me is the zone of everyday life that is directly accessible to my bodily manipulation. This zone contains the world within my reach, the world in which I act so as to modify its reality, or the world in which I work. In this world of working my consciousness is dominated by the pragmatic motive, that is, my attention to this world is mainly determined by what I am doing, have done or plan to do in it. In this way it is my world par excellence.”

Ibid., p. 36

[8] “The reality of everyday life is taken for granted as reality. It does not require additional verification over and beyond its simple presence. It is simply there, as self-evident and compelling facticity. I know that it is real. While I am capable of engaging in doubt about its reality, I am obliged to suspend such doubt as I routinely exist in everyday life. This suspension of doubt is so firm that to abandon it, as I might want to do, say, in theoretical or religious contemplation, I have to make an extreme transition. The world of everyday life proclaims itself and, when I want to challenge the proclamation, I must engage in a deliberate, by no means easy effort.”

Ibid., p. 37

[9] Solomon’s Wealth, Part 4; A Monotonous Cycle, Part 2; A Monotonous Cycle, Part 3; A Monotonous Cycle, Part 5; Who Am I? Part 1; Torture, Part 4

[10] John 17:3 (NET)

[11] Galatians 5:22, 23 (NET)

[12] Hebrews 10:24, 25 (NET)

[13] John 3:21 (NET)

[14] Accusative plural feminine  form of θυσία

[15] Accusative plural feminine form of προσφορά

[16] Accusative singular feminine form of θυσία

[17] Accusative singular feminine form of προσφορά

[18] Perfect passive participle nominative plural masculine form of ἁγιάζω

[19] http://www.greekdoc.com/lexicon/oi.html

[20] http://www.greekdoc.com/lexicon/to.html#tou

Forgiven or Passed Over? Part 6

In another essay I considered occurrences of sâlach (ונסלח) in Leviticus, translated will be forgiven.  The rabbis translation ἀφεθήσεται (a form of ἀφίημι) in the Septuagint (See Table1 below) impressed me and I compared those same passages of Leviticus to occurrences of ἀφεθήσεται in the New Testament as outlined below:

Will Be Forgiven

Leviticus 4:13-21 For the Whole Congregation sâlach, ונסלח; Septuagint: ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι Matthew 12:31
Leviticus 4:22-26 For the Leader Matthew 12:32
Leviticus 4:27-31 For the Common Person Mark 3:28
Leviticus 4:32-35 Luke 12:10

I was surprised, however, by kâphar (וכפר), translated atonement in English and ἐξιλάσεται (a form of ἐξιλάσκομαι) in the Septuagint (See Table2 below).  None of the writers of the New Testament was led by the Holy Spirit to use any form of ἐξιλάσκομαι in any descriptions of Jesus’ ministry or of new life in Christ.  My surprise reminds me where I began this trajectory, believing that the differences between one who has received (John 1:11-13) Jesus and the Judeans who had believed him (John 8:31-45) was primarily cosmetic rather than organic (John 3:7; Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:22-26).  This is another area where I haven’t fully appreciated the new covenant (Jeremiah 31:31, 32a NET):

“Indeed, a time is coming,” says the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the people of Israel and Judah.  It will not be like the old covenant that I made with their ancestors when I delivered them from Egypt.”

To highlight how the new covenant is notlike the old covenant I’ll contrast old and new covenant forgiveness.  Under the old covenant forgiveness (sâlach, ונסלח: Septuagint: ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι) was the end result of an exacting procedure of atonement (kâphar, וכפר; Septuagint: ἐξιλάσεται, a form of ἐξιλάσκομαι) officiated by priests performing rituals ordained in the law.  And I call it exacting because death was a very real possibility for priests who didn’t follow the rituals to the letter (Exodus 28:42, 43; Leviticus 10:1-3).[1]  New covenant forgiveness is more in keeping with Jesus’ Spirit: Freely you received, freely give.[2]

Under the new covenant the Son of Man (ἀνθρώπου, a form of ἄνθρωπος) [and, presumably, the daughter of humanity, too] has authority (ἐξουσίαν, a form of ἐξουσία) on earth to forgive (ἀφιέναι, another form of ἀφίημι) sins (ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία)…[3]  So Jesus said to them again (John 20:21-23 NET):

“Peace be with you.  Just as the Father has sent me, I also send you.”  And after he said this, he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit.  If you forgive (ἀφῆτε, another form of ἀφίημι) anyone’s sins (ἁμαρτίας, a form of ἁμαρτία), they are forgiven (ἀφέωνται,[4] another form of ἀφίημι); if you retain (κρατῆτε, a form of κρατέω) anyone’s sins, they are retained (κεκράτηνται, another form of κρατέω).”[5]

Anyone who prays as Jesus instructed links his or her own forgiveness, not to priests and rituals but, to the forgiveness of others: and forgive (ἄφες, another form of ἀφίημι) us our debts (ὀφειλήματα, a form of ὀφείλημα), as we ourselves have forgiven (ἀφήκαμεν,[6] another form of ἀφίημι) our debtors (ὀφειλέταις, a form of ὀφειλέτης).[7]  Jesus was explicit in his explanation: For if you forgive (ἀφῆτε, another form of ἀφίημι) others (ἀνθρώποις, another form of ἄνθρωπος) their sins (παραπτώματα, a form of παράπτωμα), your heavenly Father will also forgive (ἀφήσει, another form of ἀφίημι) you.  But if you do not forgive (ἀφῆτε, another form of ἀφίημι) others (ἀνθρώποις, another form of ἄνθρωπος),[8] your Father will not forgive (ἀφήσει, another form of ἀφίημι) you your sins (παραπτώματα, a form of παράπτωμα).[9]

I was socialized among people who, though we would never say we reject Jesus’ teaching we, have encumbered this particular teaching with so many caveats it only means that one should forgive a fellow believer in good standing with one’s local church who comes to formally seek forgiveness through repentance.  Granted, at the end of the parable of the unforgiving slave (Matthew 18:23-35) Jesus said ἀδελφῷ, brother: And in anger his lord turned him over to the prison guards to torture (βασανισταῖς, a form of βασανιστής) him until he repaid all he owed.[10]  So also my heavenly[11] Father will do to you, if each of you does not forgive (ἀφῆτε, another form of ἀφίημι) your brother (ἀδελφῷ, a form of ἀδελφός) from your heart.[12]

In his essay, “Should I Forgive Those Who Don’t Ask for Forgiveness?Julian Freeman wrote an interesting response to my socialization:

When we view ourselves as the ‘God’ figure in the relationship, we’re missing something. The reality is that we are servants, compelled by the mercy we’ve been shown, to forgive other (equal) servants. That’s different than God’s forgiveness. Our forgiveness displays the reality and power of God’s forgiveness, but it’s different. We are commanded to forgive; God does so of his own character. When God forgives it is a superior showing mercy on an inferior; when we forgive it is servant to servant. The connection between God forgiving us and us forgiving each other is a little more nuanced than some like to admit…

All things considered, I think that what Christ is calling us to is a stance, a posture of forgiveness. He’s calling us to a readiness to forgive in a moment. I think he is calling us to treat people with love and mercy, with humility and compassion. He is calling us to remember that if someone has sinned against me, I should be quicker to identify with them (‘I have sinned this way too…’) than to identify with God (‘I have been offended without cause…’). When we realize that it could have just as easily been me offending as me offended, I’m much slower to hold offences against other people.

To forgive others for being less than Christlike is a natural expression of God’s own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control[13] springing up to eternal life[14]  I take some issue with the assertion that, “Offering forgiveness really means next to nothing if the offender doesn’t believe they need forgiveness in the first place.”  Mr. Freeman stated obliquely that the purpose of our forgiveness of others is reconciliation with them—“how can there be true reconciliation in relationships if the offending party doesn’t admit wrong?”—and implied that forgiveness is just another tool to manipulate others’ behavior.

The Holy Spirit (John 14:16, 17; John 14:26) convinces, convicts, reproves, proves the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment, as Jesus taught (John 16:7-11 NET):

But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I am going away.  For if I[15] do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you.  And when he comes, he will prove the world wrong concerning sin and righteousness and judgment – concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; concerning righteousness, because I am going to the Father[16] and you will see me no longer; and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been condemned (κέκριται, a form of κρίνω).

Forgiving others demonstrates faith in Jesus’ word, as does linking our own forgiveness to forgiving others when we pray.  To my mind whether we forgive humanity (ἀνθρώποις, another form of ἄνθρωπος; translated others) in general or only repentant believers comes down to one’s interpretation of: And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people (πάντας, a form of πᾶς) to myself.[17]

I think one who believes that πάντας here means all will be more open to forgiving all than those who believe that πάντας (and any other form of πᾶς) is “generally used to signify that Christ has redeemed some of all sorts — some Jews, some Gentiles, some rich, some poor, and has not restricted His redemption to either Jew or Gentile…”[18]  Paul wrote believers in Colossae that God was pleased to have all (πᾶν, another form of πᾶς) his fullness dwell in the Son and through him to reconcile all things (πάντα, another form of πᾶς) to himself by making peace through the blood of his cross – through him, whether things on earth or things in heaven.[19]  But, admittedly, my acceptance of forms of πᾶς as all, when there is no obvious limit in the text, is a strategy.

With no offense intended to C.H. Spurgeon I would rather that Jesus ask me, “Why did you believe that I would draw all to myself?”  I can defend that with a lifetime of mistakes made by under-valuing the truth of Jesus’ words.  The alternative—“Why did you believe that πάντας meant I would draw some (τινες, a form of τίς) to myself?”—is harder to defend.  “Well, C.H. Spurgeon said…” would not have worked on my mother.  I don’t expect it to be a reasonable defense before Jesus Christ.  I tend to think more about what to forgive than who to forgive (Matthew 12:30-32 NET):

Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.  For this reason (Διὰ τοῦτο) I tell you, people (ἀνθρώποις, another form of ἄνθρωπος) will be forgiven (ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι) for every (πᾶσα, another form of πᾶς) sin (ἁμαρτία) and blasphemy (βλασφημία), but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven (ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι).[20]  Whoever[21] speaks a word against the Son of Man (ἀνθρώπου, a form of ἄνθρωπος) will be forgiven (ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι).  But whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven (ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι), either in this[22] age or in the age to come.

I try to interpret blasphemy against the Holy Spirit narrowly enough that it doesn’t become another loophole for my judgmental hatred[23] of others.  Since May[24] I’ve added Ephesians 3:14-19 back into my daily prayers.  I prayed it years ago for myself, desperately, selfishly.  Now I can pray it for all who believe, have believed and will believe in Jesus for eternal life.  Following Romans 9:16 and 11:32, my persistent prayer for justice (Luke 18:1-8), and preceding 1 Timothy 2:1-4, it has given me both the place and the presence to laugh at myself when that judgmental hatred rears its ugly head in my consciousness.  I’m like Crocodile Dundee (Paul Hogan) scarcely missing a beat as he wrings the snake’s neck.  Regardless of my personal strategy I concede that forgiving even fellow believers in faithfulness to Jesus’ teaching is a positive step toward the new covenant.

Now I want to turn briefly to a potential error.  In another essay I included Leviticus 5:1 together with verses 2-6.  Here is the entire passage (Leviticus 5:1-6 NET):

“‘When a person sins in that he hears a public curse against one who fails to testify and he is a witness (he either saw or knew what had happened) and he does not make it known, then he will bear (nâśâʼ, ונשׁא; Septuagint: λήμψεται, a form of λαμβάνω) his punishment for iniquity (ʽâvôn, עונו; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίαν, a form of ἁμαρτία).  Or when there is a person who touches anything ceremonially unclean, whether the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domesticated animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, even if he did not realize it, but he himself has become unclean and is guilty; or when he touches human uncleanness with regard to anything by which he can become unclean, even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty; or when a person swears an oath, speaking thoughtlessly with his lips, whether to do evil or to do good, with regard to anything which the individual might speak thoughtlessly in an oath, even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty with regard to one of these oaths – when an individual becomes guilty with regard to one of these things he must confess how he has sinned, and he must bring his penalty for guilt to the Lord for his sin that he has committed, a female from the flock, whether a female sheep or a female goat, for a sin offering.  So the priest will make atonement (kâphar, וכפר) on his behalf for his sin.

In the NET עונו (ʽâvôn) was translated his punishment for iniquityAaron and his sons were commanded to wear linen undergarments when they enter to the tent of meeting, or when they approach the altar to minister in the Holy Place, so that they bear (nâśâʼ, ישׁאו; Septuagint: ἐπάξονται, a form of ἐπάγω) no iniquity (ʽâvôn, עון; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίαν, a form of ἁμαρτία) and die.[25]  I acknowledged that “I would consider death an extreme punishment for bearing iniquity.”  The punishment for a witness who fails to testify and thus bears iniquity would, I assume, be the public curse.  Here is an example of a public curse (Ezra 10:7, 8 NET):

A proclamation was circulated throughout Judah and Jerusalem that all the exiles were to be assembled in Jerusalem.  Everyone who did not come within three days would thereby forfeit all his property, in keeping with the counsel of the officials and the elders.  Furthermore, he himself would be excluded from the assembly of the exiles.

So the punishments for noncompliance would be to forfeit all his property and to be excluded from the assembly of the exiles.

I’m not sure whether the person who failed to testify could still receive atonement (though the curse penalty would still be paid) or was completely exempt from the possibility of atonement.  In other words, I’m willing to consider whether this was one of the offenses from which the law of Moses could not justify: Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, Paul preached in the synagogue in Pisidian Antioch, that through this one forgiveness (ἄφεσις, a form of ἄφεσις) of sins (ἁμαρτιῶν, another form of ἁμαρτία) is proclaimed to you, and by this one everyone who believes is justified from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you.[26]  Even One of the criminals (Luke 23:39-43) on the cross, justified by grace through faith in Jesus, still died (John 19:31-37) for his crimes.

I want to compare/contrast this to the person who violates any of the Lord’s commandments but did not know it at the time (Leviticus 5:17-19 NET):

“If a person sins and violates any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated (although he did not know it at the time, but later realizes he is guilty [ʼâsham, ואשם]), then he will bear (nâśâʼ, ונשׁא; Septuagint: λάβῃ, another form of λαμβάνω) his punishment for iniquity (ʽâvôn, עונו; Septuagint: ἁμαρτίαν, a form of ἁμαρτία) and must bring a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels, for a guilt offering to the priest. So the priest will make atonement (kâphar, וכפר; Septuagint: ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι) on his behalf for his error which he committed (although he himself had not known it) and he will be forgiven (sâlach, ונסלח; Septuagint: ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι).  It is a guilt offering; he was surely (ʼâsham, אשם) guilty (ʼâsham, אשם) before the Lord.”

So did the translators consider bringing a flawless ram from the flock a punishment for iniquity?  And I ask this because they also translated אשמו (ʼâshâm) his penalty for guilt in Leviticus 5:15.

Form of ʼâshâm

Reference KJV NET Septuagint
אשמו Leviticus 5:15 …then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD… …then he must bring his penalty for guilt to the Lord… πλημμελείας, a form of πλημμέλεια[27]
לאשם …after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering …according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel, for a guilt offering. ἐπλημμέλησεν, a form of πλημμελέω[28]
Leviticus 5:18 …with thy estimation, for a trespass offering …convertible into silver shekels, for a guilt offering πλημμέλειαν, another form of πλημμέλεια
האשם Leviticus 5:16 …an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering …make atonement on his behalf with the guilt offering ram… πλημμελείας, a form of πλημμέλεια
אשם Leviticus 5:19 It is a trespass offering: It is a guilt offering ἐπλημμέλησεν, a form of πλημμελέω

Or is it simply an assertion that ignorance of the law or of one’s own violation of the law is no excuse?  Or is it an example of some unspecified punishment added to atonement?  I’m glad that my responsibility is to forgive our ὀφειλέταις (debtors), both ἁμαρτία (sin) and παράπτωμα (sin), because I have been forgiven, rather than to act as a priest adjudicating these laws.  And here I’m reminded to keep the stakes in focus (Matthew 5:18, 19 NET):

I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter will pass from the law until everything takes place.  So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others (ἀνθρώπους, another form of ἄνθρωπος) to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys[29] (ποιήσῃ, a form of ποιέω; e.g., the doers [ποιηταὶ, a form of ποιητής] of the law shall be justified) them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

Love does no wrong to a neighbor, Paul wrote believers in Rome.  Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.[30]  Two tables of occurrences of forms of sâlach and kâphar in Leviticus follow.

Form of sâlach

Reference KJV NET Septuagint
ונסלח Leviticus 4:20 …make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them. …make atonement on their behalf and they will be forgiven. ἀφεθήσεται, a form of ἀφίημι
Leviticus 4:26 …make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him. …make atonement on his behalf for his sin and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 4:31 …make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him. …make atonement on his behalf and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 4:35 …his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him. …his sin which he has committed and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 5:10 …his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him. …his sin which he has committed, and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 5:13 …in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: …by doing one of these things, and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 5:16 …with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him. …with the guilt offering ram and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 5:18 …and wist it not, and it shall be forgiven him. …(although he himself had not known it) and he will be forgiven.
Leviticus 6:7 …for him before the LORD: and it shall be forgiven him… …on his behalf before the Lord and he will be forgiven
Leviticus 19:22 and the sin which he hath done shall be forgiven him. …his sin that he has committed, and he will be forgiven

Form of kâphar

Reference KJV NET Septuagint
יכפר Leviticus 5:16 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι[31]
Leviticus 7:7 …the priest that maketh atonement therewith shall have it. …it belongs to the priest who makes atonement with it.
Leviticus 16:30 For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you… …for on this day atonement is to be made for you…
Leviticus 16:33 and he shall make an atonement for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar… he is to purify the Meeting Tent and the altar… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι; “ritually acceptable”
and he shall make an atonement for the priests… and he is to make atonement for the priests… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 17:11 …for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul. …for the blood makes atonement by means of the life.
וכפר Leviticus 4:20 and the priest shall make an atonement for them… So the priest will make atonement on their behalf… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 4:26 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 4:31 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 4:35 and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 5:6 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 5:10 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on behalf of this person…
Leviticus 5:13 And the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 5:18 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 6:7 And the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest will make atonement on his behalf…
Leviticus 9:7 …thy burnt offering, and make an atonement for thyself… …your burnt offering, and make atonement on behalf of yourself… ἐξίλασαι, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
…the offering of the people, and make an atonement for them… …the people’s offering and make atonement on behalf of them…
Leviticus 12:7 …offer it before the LORD, and make an atonement for her… …present it before the Lord and make atonement on her behalf… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 12:8 and the priest shall make an atonement for her… and the priest is to make atonement on her behalf…
Leviticus 14:18 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest is to make atonement for him…
Leviticus 14:19 …the sin offering, and make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed… …the sin offering and make atonement for the one being cleansed…
Leviticus 14:20 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest is to make atonement for him…
Leviticus 14:31 and the priest shall make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed… So the priest is to make atonement for the one being cleansed…
Leviticus 14:53 and make an atonement for the house: So he is to make atonement for the house…
Leviticus 15:15 and the priest shall make an atonement for him… So the priest is to make atonement for him…
Leviticus 15:30 and the priest shall make an atonement for her… So the priest is to make atonement for her…
Leviticus 16:6 …sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself… …bull which is for himself and is to make atonement on behalf of himself…
Leviticus 16:11 …offering, which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself… …bull which is for himself, and he is to make atonement on behalf of himself…
Leviticus 16:16 And he shall make an atonement for the holy place… So he is to make atonement for the holy place… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι; “ritually acceptable”
Leviticus 16:17 and have made an atonement for himself… and he has made atonement on his behalf… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 16:18 …the altar that is before the LORD, and make an atonement for it… …the altar which is before the Lord and make atonement for it.
Leviticus 16:24 and make an atonement for himself… So he is to make atonement on behalf of himself…
Leviticus 16:32 …to minister in the priest’s office in his father’s stead, shall make the atonement …to act as high priest in place of his father is to make atonement.
Leviticus 16:33 And he shall make an atonement for the holy sanctuary… and he is to purify the Most Holy Place… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι; “ritually acceptable”
Leviticus 19:22 And the priest shall make an atonement for him… and the priest is to make atonement for him… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
לכפר Leviticus 1:4 …and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him. …and it will be accepted for him to make atonement on his behalf. ἐξιλάσασθαι, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 6:30 …brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal… …brought into the Meeting Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary…
Leviticus 8:15 …and sanctified it, to make reconciliation upon it. …and so consecrated it to make atonement on it.
Leviticus 8:34 …commanded to do, to make an atonement for you. …commanded to be done to make atonement for you.
Leviticus 10:17 …to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them… …to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement on their behalf… ἐξιλάσησθε, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 14:21 …a trespass offering to be waved, to make an atonement for him… …a wave offering to make atonement for himself… ἐξιλάσασθαι, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 14:29 …that is to be cleansed, to make an atonement for him… …the one being cleansed to make atonement for him… ἐξιλάσεται, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 16:10 to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat… to make atonement on it by sending it away to Azazel… ἐξιλάσασθαι, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 16:17 …when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place… …when he enters to make atonement in the holy place…
Leviticus 16:27 …whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place… …whose blood was brought to make atonement in the holy place…
Leviticus 16:34 And this shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of… This is to be a perpetual statute for you to make atonement for the Israelites…
Leviticus 17:11 I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls… I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives… ἐξιλάσκεσθαι, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
Leviticus 23:28 …a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you… …a day of atonement[32] to make atonement for yourselves… ἐξιλάσασθαι, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι
מכפר Leviticus 16:20 And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place… When he has finished purifying the holy place… ἐξιλασκόμενος, another form of ἐξιλάσκομαι; “ritually acceptable”

[1] Leviticus 10:16-20 is an interesting exception which offers a model for a λόγον (a form of λόγος) made to God (Romans 14:12; 2 Corinthians 5:10).

[2] Matthew 10:8b (NET)

[3] Matthew 9:6a (NET)

[4] This verb is a perfect tense in the indicative mood.  In the Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text the word is αφιενται, still in the indicative mood but present tense.

[5] Here are some other interpretations: Commentary on John 20:19-23; What is the correct interpretation of John 20:23?; Bible Hub

[6] The verb is singular; ἀφῆκαν is the plural form according to the Koine Greek Lexicon.  Both the Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text have αφιεμεν here.  It is plural but in the present tense rather than aorist as ἀφήκαμεν and ἀφῆκαν are.  And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors (Matthew 6:12 KJV).

[7] Matthew 6:12 (NET) Table

[8] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text include the words τα παραπτωματα αυτων here: But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses (Matthew 6:15 KJV).

[9] Matthew 6:14, 15 (NET) Table

[10] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text include the word αυτω here: And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him (Matthew 18:34 KJV).

[11] Where the NET parallel Greek has οὐράνιος the Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text have επουρανιος.

[12] Matthew 18:34, 35 (NET) The Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text include the words τα παραπτωματα αυτων here: So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses (Matthew 18:35 KJV). Table

[13] Galatians 5:22, 23 (NET)

[14] John 4:14b (NET)

[15] The Byzantine Majority Text includes another εγω here.  In the NET parallel Greek text and the Stephanus Textus Receptus the I is understood from the verb απελθω which is 1st person singular.

[16] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text include the word μου here: Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more (John 16:10 KJV).

[17] John 12:32 (NET)

[18] From a C.H. Spurgeon quote included in the NET definition of πᾶς [select “Grk/Heb” at the top of the right column, then highlight and click all people in verse 32 in the left column and scroll down to “Definition:”].

[19] Colossians 1:19, 20 (NET)

[20] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text include the words τοις ανθρωποις here: Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men (Matthew 12:31 KJV).

[21] The NET parallel Greek Text and the Byzantine Majority Text have ἐὰν here where the Stephanus Textus Receptus has αν.

[22] The NET parallel Greek Text and the Stephanus Textus Receptus have τούτῳ here where the Byzantine Majority Text has νυν; literally, “the now (present) age.”

[23] I use hatred specifically here.  Jacob’s sexual preference for Rachel was described as Leah being שׁנואה (śânêʼ; KJV: hated; NET: unloved).  That had a profound impact on me since I doubt that Jacob consciously intended to hurt Leah.  Sleeping with the beautiful Rachel was kind of a no-brainer.

[24] Romans, Part 90; Believers; Cobwebs

[25] Exodus 28:43 (NET)

[26] Acts 13:38, 39 (NET)

[27] http://www.greekdoc.com/lexicon/plh.html#plhmmeleia

[28] http://www.greekdoc.com/lexicon/plh.html#plhmmelew

[29] Jedidiah, Part 5; Romans, Part 9; Romans, Part 12; Fear – Leviticus; Fear – Exodus, Part 5; Romans, Part 22; Romans, Part 49; Condemnation or Judgment? Part 7; Romans, Part 70; Romans, Part 82

[30] Romanas 13:10 (NET)

[31] http://www.greekdoc.com/lexicon/exi.html#exilaskomai

[32] kippûr, כפרים