A Monotonous Cycle Revisited, Part 2

Moses wrote (Genesis 3:22-24 Tanakh):

And HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) G-d (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’  Therefore HaShem (yehôvâh, יהוה) G-d (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.  So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.

John wrote in the revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must happen very soon.  He made it clear by sending his angel to his servant John, who then testified to everything that he saw[1] concerning the word of God and the testimony about Jesus Christ[2] (Revelation 22:1, 2 NET):

Then the angel showed me the river[3] of the water of life – water as clear as crystal – pouring out from the throne of God and of the Lamb, flowing down the middle of the city’s main street.  On each side[4] of the river is the tree of life producing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding[5] its fruit every[6] month of the year.  Its leaves are for the healing of the nations.

Placing the cherubim and the flaming sword to keep (shâmar, לשמר; Septuagint: φυλάσσειν, a form of φυλάσσω) the way to the tree of life from Adam and Eve was never about withholding life from humanity.  Though Adam and Eve knew (yedaʽ, וידעו; Septuagint: ἔγνωσαν, a form of γινώσκω) that they were naked,[7] yehôvâh ʼĕlôhı̂ym knew what it meant when sin entered the world through one man.[8]  Consider Jesus’ teaching (John 8:31, 32 NET):

Then Jesus said to those Judeans who had believed him, “If you continue to follow my teaching, you are really my disciples and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”

Jesus addressed those Judeans (KJV: Jews) who had believed him, arguably the best of the best.  Though they were hardened they were among the most spiritually cultivated (Romans 9-11) people to have walked the earth to that time, and they had begun to believe Jesus, and Jesus told them to continue to follow his teaching (μείνητε ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τῷ ἐμῷ).  Now hear with faith how He described these most spiritually cultivated people who had believed Him (John 8:44 NET):

You people are from your father[9] the devil, and you want to do what your father desires.  He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not[10] uphold the truth, because there is no truth in him.  Whenever he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, because he is a liar and the father of lies.

Spiritually cultivated they were and they had begun to believe Jesus but they were not yet born from above, not yet led by the Spirit of God, not yet the sons of God: For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God.[11]  No one born of Adam, whether confessing some sin or not, wants to hear, you people are from your father the devil, or you want (θέλετε, a form of θέλω) to do what your father desires (ἐπιθυμίας, a form of ἐπιθυμία).  But I’ll consider the story of Abel, a keeper of sheep and his elder brother Cain, a tiller of the ground in this light (Genesis 4:2b-5 Tanakh).

And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto HaShem.  And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof.  And HaShem had respect unto Abel and to his offering; but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect.  And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

It seems that Cain got the bright idea to bring yehôvâh an offering.  His little brother Abel just tagged along.  Each brought the fruit of his labor.  Who does yehôvâh think he is, discriminating this way between them?  After all, it’s the thought that counts![12]  That, by the way, was not my thought.

Oh, I wrote it.  Yes, I heard the thought in my mind.  But by faith I no longer recognize such thoughts as me (Galatians 2:20, 21) or mine.  I recognize—again, by faith in the word of God—that there is something in me—call it what you will, sin in the flesh, the old man—something that hates yehôvâh, everything He says, everything He does.  He can do nothing right.  Paul described this phenomenon in his letter to believers in Rome (Romans 7:21-25 NET Table1 Table2).

So, I find the law that when I want to do good (καλόν, a form of καλός), evil (κακὸν, a form of κακός) is present with me.  For I delight in the law of God in my inner being (ἄνθρωπον, a form of ἄνθρωπος).  But I see a different law in my members waging war against the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin that is in my members.  Wretched man (ἄνθρωπος) that I am!  Who will rescue me from this body of death?  Thanks[13] be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord!  So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin.

Then the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) said to Cain, “Why are you angry, and why is your expression downcast?[14]  I’ve approached the next verse incidentally, tangentially, judgmentally and, curiously enough in retrospect, lawfully in other essays.  Here, I wanted to approach it directly.

Genesis 4:7 (Tanakh)

Genesis 4:7 (NET)

If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’ Is it not true that if you do what is right, you will be fine?  But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at the door.  It desires to dominate you, but you must subdue it.”

Another version of the Tanakh reads: Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you?  If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it.[15]  In another essay I wrote, “you must subdue it looks and sounds to me like a religious mind trying to turn a word into a law long before the law was given.”  That wasn’t quite fair.

Hebrew Tanakh (Jewish Virtual Library) Tanakh (Chabad.org)

NET

לפתח (pethach) at the door at the entrance at the door
חטאת (chaṭṭâʼâh) sin sin sin
רבץ (râbats) coucheth is lying is crouching
ואליך (ʼêl) and unto thee and to you to dominate you
תשוקתו (teshûqâh) is its desire is its longing It desires
ואתה (ʼattâh) but thou but you but you
תמשל (mâshal) mayest rule can rule must subdue
בו (bōw)[16] over it over it it

I was surprised that תמשל (mâshal)—translated mayest rule, can rule (Tanakh), must subdue (NET), BibleHub.com offers should rule—was so uncertain.  It makes sense to me that knowing good and evil makes each of us individually responsible for choosing good, but mayest rule and especially can rule imply the ability to do so as well.  Struggling with this I perused the commentariesAlexander MacLaren pointed out the similarity here to what yehôvâh had said to Eve after she had led Adam astray (Genesis 3:1-6): and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.[17]

Hebrew

Tanakh (Jewish Virtual Library) Tanakh (Chabad.org)

NET

ואל (ʼêl) and…to And to to control
אישך (ʼı̂ysh) thy husband your husband your husband
תשוקתך (teshûqâh) thy desire shall be will be your desire You will want
והוא (hûʼ) and he and he but he
ימשל (mâshal) shall rule will rule will dominate
בך (bāḵ)[18] over thee over you you

There was no equivocation here, no wiggle room in the translation of ימשל (mâshal).  Surely man’s experience ruling over a wife has been at least as perplexing as ruling over sin.  Of course, male Bible expositors present the latter part of yehôvâh’s word to Eve as a rule for women to obey.  I haven’t heard the latter part of his word to Cain abstracted that way.   The translations divide here along party lines: those who have accepted Jesus as the Christ hear responsibility (must subdue, should rule), those who have not hear a promise of ability (mayest rule, can rule).

I thought at first that the rabbis who translated the Septuagint eschewed any personification of sin lying, crouching, desiring or longing.

Genesis 4:7 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:7 (Septuagint Elpenor)

οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς ἥμαρτες ἡσύχασον πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς, ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς, ἥμαρτες; ἡσύχασον· πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ.

Genesis 4:7 (NETS)

Genesis 4:7 (English Elpenor)

If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you not sinned?  Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him.” Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him.

I had rejected the Septuagint here because it seemed to refer back to AbelCharles Ellicott offered a similar interpretation in his commentary:

“At present thou art vexed and envious because thy younger brother is rich and prosperous, while thy tillage yields thee but scanty returns.  Do well, and the Divine blessing will rest on thee, and thou wilt recover thy rights of primogeniture, and thy brother will look up to thee in loving obedience.”

I can’t assume that Abel was “rich and prosperous” while Cain’s “tillage yields…but scanty returns,” or that yehôvâh was concerned with Cain’s “rights of primogeniture” from what is written in the text.  I’ve assumed that HaShem had respect unto Abel and to his offering because yehôvâh foreknew that a Passover lamb would become important to his people rather than a Passover kumquat.  (No, I have no idea what kind of produce Cain offered Him.)  But if I consider now that the referent of his and him was sin rather than Abel, I get a different picture.

The rabbis understood רבץ (râbats) as an imperative ἡσύχασον (Be still) directed to Cain rather than as a description of sin lying or crouching.  Had Cain believed yehôvâh’s command to be still, he would have realized yehôvâh’s promise—you will rule (NETS), thou shalt rule (Elpenor) over sin—without equivocation.  I called this “yehôvâh at his most aloof,”[19] relative to the time and attention He lavishes on me.  (The philosophical bent of my mind still longs for a thousand page discourse where yehôvâh sits down with Cain and explains his understanding of sin, righteousness and redemption.)  Be still as yehôvâh’s command to Cain reminds me of Peter (Matthew 14:28 NET).

Peter said to [Jesus], “Lord, if it is you, order me to come to you on the water.”

Here is an example of what I meant by the spiritual cultivation of Israel.  Peter wasn’t a priest, a scribe or a religious professional of any sort.  He was a fisherman.  But he believed that if Jesus the Christ ordered or commanded him to come to Him on the water it would be so.  But this is probably too facile an explanation.  Peter’s lack of religious sophistication may have enhanced his spiritual cultivation.  Of his more religiously sophisticated (Philippians 3:5-7) brethren, Paul wrote (Romans 10:2, 3; 9:31, 32 NET Table):

…I can testify that [my fellow Israelites] are zealous for God, but their zeal is not in line with the truth (ἐπίγνωσιν, a form of ἐπίγνωσις).  For ignoring the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking instead to establish their own righteousness, they did not submit to God’s righteousness.

Israel even though pursuing a law of righteousness did not attain it.[20]  Why not?  Because they pursued it not by faith but (as if it were possible) by works.[21]  They stumbled over the stumbling stone…

In my zeal for God,[22] Paul wrote of his own religious sophistication, I persecuted the church.[23]

I wondered if be still here had any relationship to, Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth.[24]  But the Hebrew word translated Be still there was הרפו (râphâh), translated σχολάσατε (a form of σχολάζω) in the Septuagint.  As I contemplated the definition of σχολάζω in the Greek Lexicon online I was lifted out of the weeds, so to speak, fussing over the meaning of word strings in the Bible, and into that eternal life of knowing the only true God, and Jesus Christ.  The definition of σχολάζω reads:

to devote oneself; to have leisure; to devote, have spare time, be at leisure, take a vacation; to take it easy; to have time to be busy with one’s interests apart from work; to take time to devote to study

This accurately describes the life I’ve received from Him, received in that same active sense that Jesus’ disciples accepted the words He gave them.  And, yes, σχολάσατε is an active form of σχολάζω.  This active stillness is how I pursue (ζητεῖτε, a form of ζητέω) his kingdom and righteousness: But above all, Jesus commanded, pursue his kingdom and righteousness, and all these things [food, drink, clothing] will be given to you as well.[25]  The definition of ζητέω in the Greek Lexicon online reads:

to seek, search, look for; to inquire, investigate, examine, consider, deliberate; to try to obtain, desire to possess; to strive for, aim for, desire, wish; to ask for, request, demand (something); to claim (as entitlement); to appeal to someone for guidance

Back again in the weeds, the rabbis who translated the Septuagint offered no Greek counterpart for לפתח (pethach; translated at the door, at the entrance [Tanakh], at the door [NET]).  Why would they ignore לפתח (pethach) before Jesus was revealed to Israel?  Why would Masoretes add it afterward?  Frankly, I can’t imagine any plausible scenarios at the moment.  So as far as understanding what yehôvâh said to Cain, I’m more uncertain now than when I began this study.  I have, however, encountered many provocative ideas ripe for further study.  And what He said hardly mattered to the narrative.  Cain ignored it (Genesis 4:8 Tanakh).

And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother.  And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.[26]

Cain was from [his] father the devil, and wanted to do what [his] father desires.  As Jesus said to those Judeans who had believed him…[the devil] was a murderer from the beginning, and does not uphold the truth (ἀληθείᾳ), because there is no truth (ἀλήθεια) in him.  There was no ritual or intentionality required for Cain to be from his father the devil.  It is the natural condition of those born of the flesh of Adam and Eve.  “What is born of the flesh is flesh,” Jesus told Nicodemus, “and what is born of the Spirit is spirit.  Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must all be born from above.’”[27] 

Those who are in the flesh cannot please God,[28] Paul wrote to believers in Rome (Romans 8:5-7 NET).

For those who live according to the flesh have their outlook shaped by the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit have their outlook shaped by the things of the Spirit.  For the outlook of the flesh is death, but the outlook of the Spirit is life and peace, because the outlook of the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able to do so.

You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, Paul continued, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you.  Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him.  But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness.  Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who lives in you.[29]

As a child trusting Jesus for a place in heaven I comforted myself and fell asleep many nights planning the perfect murders of my neighbor and his entire family.  My plan was never quite perfect.  I feared I would be caught.  Then people would misunderstand and call me names like “murderer” when I was the hapless victim balancing the scales of justice.  So I never murdered my neighbor or his entire family.

My fear—that I would be caught and my motives would be misunderstood—was not the righteousness of Godrevealed in the gospel.[30]  It was not the love that does no wrong to a neighbor, not the love that is the fulfillment of the law.[31]  It was not the love that is the fruit of his Spirit (Galatians 5:22, 23).  Not murdering my neighbor and his entire family was indisputably better than murdering them would have been.  And clearly, it was possible for me to avoid committing murder apart from the righteousness of God.  But imagine standing face to face with Jesus and offering Him the fact that I did not murder my neighbor and his entire family as a righteousness of my own derived from the law after having rejected the gift He offered, the gift of God Himself (Acts 2:36-41).

It is inevitable, I suppose, that a reader wonders what my neighbor did to me: It was nothing in particular.  He was a year younger than I and didn’t treat me with the deference I felt I deserved.  And he got away with it.  My god failed to punish him for his sin.  This was not a singularly low point in my childhood, certainly not a turning point.  My darkness deepened into my teens until atheism became my only “rational” choice.

This kind of self-awareness might crush the spirit in any other form of life.  In this eternal life of yehôvâh’s Holy Spirit it encouraged me to stay the course when I had begun to waver.  I had begun to judge some as undeserving of “my persistent prayer for justice.”  At least I had confessed in prayer that I was embarrassed to bring them before the Lord again.  But now in the light of his utmost patience and mercy toward the boy who consoled himself with murder, I pray with renewed vigor:

My persistent prayer for justice (Luke 18:1-8) is for the mercy on which everything depends, for it does not depend on human desire or exertion, but on [You] who shows mercy.[32]  And You have consigned all people to disobedience so that [You] may show mercy to them all.[33]

The love of Christ that surpasses knowledge[34] is not some vague affection (1 Corinthians 13:4-13) He hoards for us but the omnipotent engine of righteousness He gives to us in the person of his own Holy Spirit.  No one is good except God alone.[35]

The tables I made to write this essay comparing Genesis 3:22-24; 4:2b-5; 4:6, 7; 3:16; Psalm 46:10 and Genesis 4:8 in the Tanakh and NET, and the tables comparing Genesis 3:22; 3:23; 3:24; 4:2b; 4:3; 4:4; 4:5; 4:6; 4:7; 3:16; Psalm 46:10 and Genesis 4:8 in the Septuagint (BLB and Elpenor) follow.  Following those are tables comparing Revelation 1:2; 22:1, 2; John 8:44; Romans 9:31; Philippians 3:6 and Romans 8:9 in the NET and KJV.

Genesis 3:22-24 (Tanakh)

Genesis 3:22-24 (NET)

And HaShem G-d said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’ And the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) said, “Now that the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil, he must not be allowed to stretch out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.”
Therefore HaShem G-d sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) expelled him from the orchard in Eden to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken.
So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life. When he drove the man out, he placed on the eastern side of the orchard in Eden angelic sentries who used the flame of a whirling sword to guard the way to the tree of life.

Genesis 3:22 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 3:22 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός ἰδοὺ Αδαμ γέγονεν ὡς εἷς ἐξ ἡμῶν τοῦ γινώσκειν καλὸν καὶ πονηρόν καὶ νῦν μήποτε ἐκτείνῃ τὴν χεῗρα καὶ λάβῃ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς καὶ φάγῃ καὶ ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Θεός· ἰδοὺ ᾿Αδὰμ γέγονεν ὡς εἷς ἐξ ἡμῶν, τοῦ γινώσκειν καλὸν καὶ πονηρόν· καὶ νῦν μή ποτε ἐκτείνῃ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ καὶ λάβῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς καὶ φάγῃ καὶ ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.

Genesis 3:22 (NETS)

Genesis 3:22 (English Elpenor)

Then God said, “See, Adam has become like one of us, knowing good and evil, and now perhaps he might reach out his hand and take of the tree of life and eat, and he will live forever.” And God said, Behold, Adam is become as one of us, to know good and evil, and now lest at any time he stretch forth his hand, and take of the tree of life and eat, and [so] he shall live forever–

Genesis 3:23 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 3:23 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν αὐτὸν κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐκ τοῦ παραδείσου τῆς τρυφῆς ἐργάζεσθαι τὴν γῆν ἐξ ἧς ἐλήμφθη καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν αὐτὸν Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ἐκ τοῦ παραδείσου τῆς τρυφῆς ἐργάζεσθαι τὴν γῆν, ἐξ ἧς ἐλήφθη.

Genesis 3:23 (NETS)

Genesis 3:23 (English Elpenor)

And the Lord God sent him forth from the orchard of delight to till the earth from which he was taken. So the Lord God sent him forth out of the garden of Delight to cultivate the ground out of which he was taken.

Genesis 3:24 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 3:24 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ ἐξέβαλεν τὸν Αδαμ καὶ κατῴκισεν αὐτὸν ἀπέναντι τοῦ παραδείσου τῆς τρυφῆς καὶ ἔταξεν τὰ χερουβιμ καὶ τὴν φλογίνην ῥομφαίαν τὴν στρεφομένην φυλάσσειν τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς καὶ ἐξέβαλε τὸν ᾿Αδὰμ καὶ κατῴκισεν αὐτὸν ἀπέναντι τοῦ παραδείσου τῆς τρυφῆς καὶ ἔταξε τὰ Χερουβὶμ καὶ τὴν φλογίνην ρομφαίαν τὴν στρεφομένην φυλάσσειν τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς.

Genesis 3:24 (NETS)

Genesis 3:24 (English Elpenor)

And he drove Adam out and caused him to dwell opposite the orchard of delight, and he stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword that turns, to guard the way of the tree of life. And he cast out Adam and caused him to dwell over against the garden of Delight, and stationed the cherubs and the fiery sword that turns about to keep the way of the tree of life.
Genesis 4:2b-5 (Tanakh)

Genesis 4:2b-5 (NET)

And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. Abel took care of the flocks, while Cain cultivated the ground.
And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto HaShem. At the designated time Cain brought some of the fruit of the ground for an offering to the Lord (yehôvâh, ליהוה).
And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof.  And HaShem had respect unto Abel and to his offering; But Abel brought some of the firstborn of his flock – even the fattest of them.  And the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) was pleased with Abel and his offering,
but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect.  And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. but with Cain and his offering he was not pleased.  So Cain became very angry, and his expression was downcast.

Genesis 4:2b (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:2b (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ ἐγένετο Αβελ ποιμὴν προβάτων Καιν δὲ ἦν ἐργαζόμενος τὴν γῆν καὶ ἐγένετο ῎Αβελ ποιμὴν προβάτων, Κάϊν δὲ ἦν ἐργαζόμενος τὴν γῆν.

Genesis 4:2b (NETS)

Genesis 4:2b (English Elpenor)

And Habel became a herder of sheep, but Kain was tilling the earth. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

Genesis 4:3 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:3 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ᾽ ἡμέρας ἤνεγκεν Καιν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς θυσίαν τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ᾿ ἡμέρας ἤνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς θυσίαν τῷ Κυρίῳ,

Genesis 4:3 (NETS)

Genesis 4:3 (English Elpenor)

And it came about after some days that Kain brought to the Lord an offering of the fruits of the earth, And it was so after some time that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice to the Lord.

Genesis 4:4 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:4 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ Αβελ ἤνεγκεν καὶ αὐτὸς ἀπὸ τῶν πρωτοτόκων τῶν προβάτων αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν στεάτων αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπεῗδεν ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ Αβελ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῗς δώροις αὐτοῦ καὶ Ἄβελ ἤνεγκε καὶ αὐτὸς ἀπὸ τῶν πρωτοτόκων τῶν προβάτων αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν στεάτων αὐτῶν. καὶ ἐπεῖδεν ὁ Θεὸς ἐπὶ ῎Αβελ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς δώροις αὐτοῦ,

Genesis 4:4 (NETS)

Genesis 4:4 (English Elpenor)

And Habel, he also brought of the firstlings of his sheep and of their fat portions.  And God looked upon Habel and upon his gifts, And Abel also brought of the first born of his sheep and of his fatlings, and God looked upon Abel and his gifts,

Genesis 4:5 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:5 (Septuagint Elpenor)

ἐπὶ δὲ Καιν καὶ ἐπὶ ταῗς θυσίαις αὐτοῦ οὐ προσέσχεν καὶ ἐλύπησεν τὸν Καιν λίαν καὶ συνέπεσεν τῷ προσώπῳ ἐπὶ δὲ Κάϊν καὶ ἐπὶ ταῖς θυσίαις αὐτοῦ οὐ προσέσχε. καὶ ἐλυπήθη Κάϊν λίαν, καὶ συνέπεσε τῷ προσώπῳ αὐτοῦ.

Genesis 4:5 (NETS)

Genesis 4:5 (English Elpenor)

but on Kain and on his offerings he was not intent.  And it distressed Kain exceedingly, and he collapsed in countenance. but Cain and his sacrifices he regarded not, and Cain was exceedingly sorrowful and his countenance fell.

Genesis 4:6, 7 (Tanakh)

Genesis 4:6, 7 (NET)

And HaShem said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? Then the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) said to Cain, “Why are you angry, and why is your expression downcast?
If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’ Is it not true that if you do what is right, you will be fine? But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at the door.  It desires to dominate you, but you must subdue it.”

Genesis 4:6 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:6 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ εἶπεν κύριος ὁ θεὸς τῷ Καιν ἵνα τί περίλυπος ἐγένου καὶ ἵνα τί συνέπεσεν τὸ πρόσωπόν σου καὶ εἶπε Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς τῷ Κάϊν· ἵνα τί περίλυπος ἐγένου, καὶ ἵνα τί συνέπεσε τὸ πρόσωπόν σου;

Genesis 4:6 (NETS)

Genesis 4:6 (English Elpenor)

And the Lord God said to Kain, “Why have you become deeply grieved, and why has your countenance collapsed? And the Lord God said to Cain, Why art thou become very sorrowful and why is thy countenance fallen?

Genesis 4:7 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:7 (Septuagint Elpenor)

οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς ἥμαρτες ἡσύχασον πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς, ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς, ἥμαρτες; ἡσύχασον· πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ.

Genesis 4:7 (NETS)

Genesis 4:7 (English Elpenor)

If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you not sinned?  Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him.” Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him.

Genesis 3:16 (Tanakh)

Genesis 3:16 (NET)

Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’ To the woman he said, “I will greatly increase your labor pains; with pain you will give birth to children.  You will want to control your husband, but he will dominate you.”

Genesis 3:16 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 3:16 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ εἶπεν πληθύνων πληθυνῶ τὰς λύπας σου καὶ τὸν στεναγμόν σου ἐν λύπαις τέξῃ τέκνα καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα σου ἡ ἀποστροφή σου καὶ αὐτός σου κυριεύσει καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ εἶπε· πληθύνων πληθυνῶ τὰς λύπας σου καὶ τὸν στεναγμόν σου· ἐν λύπαις τέξῃ τέκνα, καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα σου ἡ ἀποστροφή σου, καὶ αὐτός σου κυριεύσει.

Genesis 3:16 (NETS)

Genesis 3:16 (English Elpenor)

And to the woman he said, “I will increasingly increase your pains and your groaning; with pains you will bring forth children.  And your recourse will be to your husband, and he will dominate you.” And to the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy pains and thy groanings; in pain thou shalt bring forth children, and thy submission shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.

Psalm 46:10 (Tanakh)

Psalm 46:10 (NET)

Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth. He says, “Stop your striving and recognize that I am God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים)!  I will be exalted over the nations!  I will be exalted over the earth!”

Psalm 46:10 (Septuagint BLB)

Psalm 45:11 (Septuagint Elpenor)

σχολάσατε καὶ γνῶτε ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεός ὑψωθήσομαι ἐν τοῗς ἔθνεσιν ὑψωθήσομαι ἐν τῇ γῇ σχολάσατε καὶ γνῶτε ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Θεός· ὑψωθήσομαι ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, ὑψωθήσομαι ἐν τῇ γῇ.

Psalm 45:11 (NETS)

Psalm 45:11 (English Elpenor)

“Relax, and know that I am God!  I will be exalted among the nations; I will be exalted in the earth.” Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth.

Genesis 4:8 (Tanakh)

Genesis 4:8 (NET)

And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother.  And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. Cain said to his brother Abel, “Let’s go out to the field.”  While they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him.

Genesis 4:8 (Septuagint BLB)

Genesis 4:8 (Septuagint Elpenor)

καὶ εἶπεν Καιν πρὸς Αβελ τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πεδίον καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ καὶ ἀνέστη Καιν ἐπὶ Αβελ τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν καὶ εἶπε Κάϊν πρὸς ῎Αβελ τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ· διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πεδίον. καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ, ἀνέστη Κάϊν ἐπὶ ῎Αβελ τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν.

Genesis 4:8 (NETS)

Genesis 4:8 (English Elpenor)

And Kain said to his brother Habel, “Let us go through into the plain.”  And it came about when they were in the plain, that then Kain rose up against his brother Habel and killed him. And Cain said to Abel his brother, Let us go out into the plain; and it came to pass that when they were in the plain Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

Revelation 1:2 (NET)

Revelation 1:2 (KJV)

who then testified to everything that he saw concerning the word of God and the testimony about Jesus Christ. Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὃς ἐμαρτύρησεν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ὅσα εἶδεν ος εμαρτυρησεν τον λογον του θεου και την μαρτυριαν ιησου χριστου οσα τε ειδεν ος εμαρτυρησεν τον λογον του θεου και την μαρτυριαν ιησου χριστου οσα ειδεν
Revelation 22:1, 2 (NET)

Revelation 22:1, 2 (KJV)

Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life – water as clear as crystal – pouring out from the throne of God and of the Lamb, And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Καὶ ἔδειξεν μοι ποταμὸν ὕδατος ζωῆς λαμπρὸν ὡς κρύσταλλον, ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκ τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἀρνίου και εδειξεν μοι καθαρον ποταμον υδατος ζωης λαμπρον ως κρυσταλλον εκπορευομενον εκ του θρονου του θεου και του αρνιου και εδειξεν μοι ποταμον καθαρον υδατος ζωης λαμπρον ως κρυσταλλον εκπορευομενον εκ του θρονου του θεου και του αρνιου
flowing down the middle of the city’s main street.  On each side of the river is the tree of life producing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month of the year.  Its leaves are for the healing of the nations. In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ἐν μέσῳ τῆς πλατείας αὐτῆς καὶ τοῦ ποταμοῦ ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ξύλον ζωῆς ποιοῦν καρποὺς δώδεκα, κατὰ μῆνα ἕκαστον ἀποδιδοῦν τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ φύλλα τοῦ ξύλου εἰς θεραπείαν τῶν ἐθνῶν εν μεσω της πλατειας αυτης και του ποταμου εντευθεν και εντευθεν ξυλον ζωης ποιουν καρπους δωδεκα κατα μηνα ενα εκαστον αποδιδουν τον καρπον αυτου και τα φυλλα του ξυλου εις θεραπειαν των εθνων εν μεσω της πλατειας αυτης και του ποταμου εντευθεν και εντευθεν ξυλον ζωης ποιουν καρπους δωδεκα κατα μηνα εκαστον αποδιδους τον καρπον αυτου και τα φυλλα του ξυλου εις θεραπειαν των εθνων

John 8:44 (NET)

John 8:44 (KJV)

You people are from your father the devil, and you want to do what your father desires.  He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not uphold the truth, because there is no truth in him.  Whenever he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, because he is a liar and the father of lies. Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do.  He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him.  When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὑμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ διαβόλου ἐστὲ καὶ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν θέλετε ποιεῖν. ἐκεῖνος ἀνθρωποκτόνος ἦν ἀπ᾿ ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ οὐκ ἔστηκεν, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν αὐτῷ. ὅταν λαλῇ τὸ ψεῦδος, ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων λαλεῖ, ὅτι ψεύστης ἐστὶν καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ υμεις εκ πατρος του διαβολου εστε και τας επιθυμιας του πατρος υμων θελετε ποιειν εκεινος ανθρωποκτονος ην απ αρχης και εν τη αληθεια ουχ εστηκεν οτι ουκ εστιν αληθεια εν αυτω οταν λαλη το ψευδος εκ των ιδιων λαλει οτι ψευστης εστιν και ο πατηρ αυτου υμεις εκ του πατρος του διαβολου εστε και τας επιθυμιας του πατρος υμων θελετε ποιειν εκεινος ανθρωποκτονος ην απ αρχης και εν τη αληθεια ουχ εστηκεν οτι ουκ εστιν αληθεια εν αυτω οταν λαλη το ψευδος εκ των ιδιων λαλει οτι ψευστης εστιν και ο πατηρ αυτου

Romans 9:31 (NET)

Romans 9:31 (KJV)

but Israel even though pursuing a law of righteousness did not attain it. But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

Ἰσραὴλ δὲ διώκων νόμον δικαιοσύνης εἰς νόμον οὐκ ἔφθασεν ισραηλ δε διωκων νομον δικαιοσυνης εις νομον δικαιοσυνης ουκ εφθασεν ισραηλ δε διωκων νομον δικαιοσυνης εις νομον δικαιοσυνης ουκ εφθασεν

Philippians 3:6 (NET)

Philippians 3:6 (KJV)

In my zeal for God I persecuted the church.  According to the righteousness stipulated in the law I was blameless. Concerning zeal, persecuting the church; touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

κατὰ ζῆλος διώκων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατὰ δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν νόμῳ γενόμενος ἄμεμπτος κατα ζηλον διωκων την εκκλησιαν κατα δικαιοσυνην την εν νομω γενομενος αμεμπτος κατα ζηλον διωκων την εκκλησιαν κατα δικαιοσυνην την εν νομω γενομενος αμεμπτος
Romans 8:9 (NET)

Romans 8:9 (KJV)

You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you.  Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him. But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you.  Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

NET Parallel Greek

Stephanus Textus Receptus

Byzantine Majority Text

ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι, εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ υμεις δε ουκ εστε εν σαρκι αλλ εν πνευματι ειπερ πνευμα θεου οικει εν υμιν ει δε τις πνευμα χριστου ουκ εχει ουτος ουκ εστιν αυτου υμεις δε ουκ εστε εν σαρκι αλλ εν πνευματι ειπερ πνευμα θεου οικει εν υμιν ει δε τις πνευμα χριστου ουκ εχει ουτος ουκ εστιν αυτου

 

[1] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had τε (KJV: and) preceding he saw.  The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[2] Revelation 1:1, 2 (NET)

[3] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had καθαρον (KJV: pure) preceding river.  The Byzantine Majority Text had καθαρον following river.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[4] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐκεῖθεν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had εντευθεν και εντευθεν (KJV: on either side).

[5] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Stephanus Textus Receptus had ἀποδιδοῦν here, where the Byzantine Majority Text had αποδιδους.

[6] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had ενα preceding every.  The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[7] Genesis 3:7b (Tanakh)

[8] Romans 5:12a (NET)

[9] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had the article τοῦ preceding father.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus did not.

[10] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had οὐκ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ουχ.

[11] Romans 8:14 (NET)

[12] “Even when people do things for you and give you things that you don’t actually want, you must always remember that it’s the thought that counts.” Cambridge Dictionary

[13] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had χάρις here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ευχαριστω (KJV: I thank).

[14] Genesis 4:6 (NET)

[15] Genesis 4:7 (Tanakh)

[16] Genesis 4:7 Hebrew

[17] Genesis 3:16b (Tanakh)

[18] Genesis 3:16 Hebrew

[19] Condemnation or Judgment? – Part 11

[20] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had νομον δικαιοσυνης (KJV: the law of righteousness) here, where the NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had νόμον.

[21] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had νομου (KJV: of the law) following works.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[22] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ζῆλος here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ζηλον (KJV: zeal).

[23] Philippians 3:6a (NET)

[24] Psalm 46:10 (Tanakh)

[25] Matthew 6:33 (NET) Table

[26] The NET had “Let’s go out to the field” here, as did the Septuagint [Table of Genesis 4:8 in this essay].

[27] John 3:6, 7 (NET)

[28] Romans 8:8 (NET)

[29] Romans 8:9-11 (NET) Table

[30] Romans 1:17a (NET)

[31] Romans 13:10 (NET)

[32] Romans 9:16 (NET) Table

[33] Romans 11:32 (NET)

[34] Ephesians 3:19b (NET)

[35] Luke 18:19b (NET)

Romans, Part 17

Where, then, is boasting?  Paul continued in Romans.  It is excluded!  By what principle (νόμου, a form of νόμος)?[1]  Of works (ἔργων, a form of ἔργον)?[2]  No, but by the principle (νόμου, a form of νόμος) of faith (πίστεως, a form of πίστις)![3]  For we consider (λογιζόμεθα,  a form of λογίζομαι)[4] that a person is declared righteous (δικαιοῦσθαι, a form of δικαιόω)[5] by faith (πίστει, another form of πίστις) apart from the works (ἔργων, a form of ἔργον) of the law (νόμου, a form of νόμος).[6]  The NET translators chose principle for the first two occurrences of νόμου (a form of νόμος) in this passage to help the reader distinguish between the “law of faith” that excludes boasting and the works of the law, one’s own efforts to keep God’s law.

It is virtually impossible for me to quote the above passage without recalling James’ letter, a person is justified (δικαιοῦται, another form of δικαιόω) by works (ἔργων, a form of ἔργον) and not by faith (πίστεως, a form of πίστις) alone (μόνον, a form of μόνος).[7]  I’ve often wondered if James intended to refute or correct Paul.  But James didn’t write enough that I can know his intent.  So I content myself with attempting to understand the Holy Spirit’s intent.  He wrote quite a bit about this subject.

Or is God the God of the Jews only? Paul asked.  Is he not the God of the Gentiles too? Yes, of the Gentiles too!  Since God is one, he will justify (δικαιώσει, another form of δικαιόω) the circumcised by faith (πίστεως, a form of πίστις) and the uncircumcised through faith (πίστεως, a form of πίστις).[8]  It seemed to me that the Holy Spirit’s intent would of necessity be something that both Paul and James described truthfully and accurately.  Paul continued to preach justification by and through faith, James stressed works and that one was not justified by faith alone (πιστεως μονον).

I recalled a story when Peter saw, what he thought was, a ghost walking on the water.  Have courage!  It is I.  Do not be afraid,[9] Jesus said.  Peter said to him, “Lord, if it is you, order me to come to you on the water.”[10]  I had heard the story since childhood, but for some reason as I was striving to obey God’s law in my own strength it struck me what a dumb thing that was to say.  Why would anyone in his right mind set himself up for that kind of failure?  And just as I asked the question, the answer was right in front of me.  Peter believed that Jesus’ command would come to pass.  If Jesus ordered him to walk on water, he would walk on water.  It was a wonderful insight.  I could turn back to Exodus 20 and read The Ten Promises as opposed to the ten commandments I was trying so hard to obey on my own, not to mention all of Jesus’ other commandments.

I went off sure that I understood everything now, found out again that I didn’t, and then came back to this story.  So [Jesus] said, “Come.”  Peter got out of the boat, walked on the water, and came toward Jesus.[11]  Peter may have had that kind of faith, I thought, obviously I did not.  But even Peter didn’t fare all that well, when he saw the strong wind he became afraid.  And starting to sink, he cried out, “Lord, save me!”[12]  So Peter, just like me, got all excited about faith and then made a fool out of himself.

Jesus wouldn’t let me get away with that for very long.  I heard a sermon about this story, not a sermon browbeating me to have more faith and stop doubting, a good one.  When the preacher read the text—Immediately Jesus reached out his hand and caught him, saying to him, “You of little faith, why did you doubt?”[13]—this preacher’s attention wasn’t focused on Peter’s failure but on Jesus’ immediate help.  Then he said the most revolutionary, life-changing thing I had heard to date, “Jesus had the faith to stand on the water and hold Peter up as well.”

The preacher kept talking but I didn’t hear any more that day.  The sermon wasn’t over for me, however.  It had only just begun.  “You weren’t making fun of Peter, were you?” I prayed.  Then Jesus’ question— why did you doubt?—became a real question, my question—Why do I doubt?—and it deserved a real answer.  I don’t recall how long it took to get to the bottom of that question, but finally the answer was fairly simple and obvious.  I doubted because I was depending on my faith.  My faith was pretty good at changing what I thought, but not so good at changing what I did, much less having any effect on the world beyond my mind.

That sounded pretty much like James’ faith alone (πιστεως μονον).  So also faith (πίστις), if it does not have works (ἔργα, another form of ἔργον), is dead (νεκρά, a form of νεκρός)[14] being by itself.[15]  But Paul didn’t write the Romans about that kind of faith, Do we then nullify (καταργοῦμεν, a form of καταργέω)[16] the law (νόμον, another form of νόμος) through faith (πίστεως, a form of πίστις)?  Absolutely not!  Instead we uphold (histēmi, ἵστημι)[17] the law (νόμον, another form of νόμος).[18]  Clearly, my faith was dead, being by itself alone.  My efforts to obey the law, my works of the law, by my dead faith were meaningless.

I danced around that conclusion for a long time because my religious mind had me convinced that if I acknowledged its truth I would be condemned, rather than that I would have learned something extremely valuable.  It is no idle word that Paul proclaimed, There is therefore now no condemnation (κατάκριμα)[19] for those who are in Christ Jesus.[20]  I want to call this the absolute baseline of faith in Jesus Christ.  Apart from this faith no one can be honest enough to learn anything from the Lord or the Bible.

So if I can’t depend on my faith, whose faith can I depend on?  I hope the answer is obvious.  I want to depend on Jesus’ faith.  He has the faith to stand on the water and hold Peter up as well.  How can I have Jesus’ faith?  But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness (πίστις)…[21]  And that is exactly what Paul wrote about in Romans, the righteousness (δικαιοσύνη)[22] of God through the faithfulness (πίστεως, a form of πίστις) of Jesus Christ for all who believe (πιστεύοντας, a form of πιστεύω).[23]


[6] Romans 3:27, 28 (NET)

[7] James 2:24 (NET)

[8] Romans 3:29, 30 (NET)

[9] Matthew 14:27 (NET)

[10] Matthew 14:28 (NET)

[11] Matthew 14:29 (NET)

[12] Matthew 14:30 (NET)

[13] Matthew 14:31 (NET)

[15] James 2:17 (NET)

[18] Romans 3:31 (NET)

[20] Romans 8:1 (NET)

[21] Galatians 5:22 (NET)

[23] Romans 3:22 (NET)