Atonement, Part 9

This is a continuation of yehôvâh’s (יהוה) instruction to Moses: They[1] are to eat those things by which atonement (kâphar, כפר; Septuagint: ἡγιάσθησαν, a form of ἁγιάζω) was made to consecrate and to set them apart, but no one else may eat them, for they are holy.[2]  The atonement of Aaron and his sons continued with the breast of the second ram:

Exodus 29:26 (NET)

Leviticus 8:29 (NET)

You are to take the breast of the ram of Aaron’s consecration (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις); you are to wave it as a wave offering before the Lord, and it is to be your share. Finally, Moses took the breast and waved it as a wave offering (tenûphâh, תנופה; Septuagint: ἐπίθεμα) before the Lord from the ram of ordination (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις).  It was Moses’ share just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

Though τελειώσεως, the translation of המלאים (millûʼ) in the Septuagint, doesn’t occur in the New Testament, I’ve already considered its root τελείωσις in two essays.[3]  The Greek word ἐπίθεμα is another, used to translate תנופה (tenûphâh) in the Septuagint, that does not occur in the New Testament.  But we have come finally to those things Aaron and his sons are to eat that no one else may eat (Exodus 29:27, 28 NET):

You are to sanctify (qâdash, וקדשת; Septuagint: ἁγιάσεις, another form of ἁγιάζω) the breast of the wave offering (tenûphâh, התנופה; Septuagint: ἀφόρισμα) and the thigh of the contribution (terûmâh, התרומה; Septuagint: ἀφαιρέματος), which were waved and lifted up as a contribution from the ram of consecration (millûʼ, המלאים; Septuagint: τελειώσεως, a form of τελείωσις), from what belongs to Aaron and to his sons.  It is to belong to Aaron and to his sons from the Israelites, by a perpetual ordinance, for it is a contribution (terûmâh, תרומה; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα).  It is to be a contribution (terûmâh, ותרומה; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα) from the Israelites from their peace offerings, their contribution (terûmâh, תרומתם; Septuagint: ἀφαίρεμα) to the Lord.

I still plan to reserve any further study of forms of ἁγιάζω for another series of essays.  The Greek words ἀφόρισμα, another translation of התנופה (tenûphâh), ἀφαιρέματος (a form of ἀφαίρεμα), a translation of התרומה (terûmâh) and ἀφαίρεμα were not used in the New Testament.  But the word translated peace offerings above was שלמיהם (shelem) in Hebrew.  It was translated τῶν θυμάτων τῶν σωτηρίων (a form of σωτήριον[4]) in the Septuagint, which was translated back into English as “the victims of deliverance.”  This was a fairly rich vein to mine.

Luke wrote in his Gospel narrative (Luke 2:25-32 NET):

Now there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon who was righteous and devout, looking for the restoration of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him.  It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen[5] the Lord’s Christ.  So Simeon, directed by the Spirit, came into the temple courts, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what was customary according to the law, Simeon took him in his[6] arms and blessed God, saying, “Now, according to your word, Sovereign Lord, permit your servant to depart in peace.  For my eyes have seen your salvation (σωτήριον) that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples: a light, for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to your people Israel.”

So Simeon, led by the Holy Spirit, declared Jesus the Sovereign Lord’s salvation, his peace offering, his victim of deliverance.  Again, I turn to Luke’s Gospel narrative (Luke 3:1-6 NET):

In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch[7] of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, during the high priesthood[8] of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John the[9] son of Zechariah in the wilderness.  He went into all the region around the Jordan River, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.  As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet,[10] “The voice of one shouting in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths straight.  Every valley will be filled, and every mountain and hill will be brought low, and the crooked will be made straight, and the rough ways will be made smooth, and all humanity will see the salvation (σωτήριον) of God.’”

Luke indirectly (John 1:29-34) ascribed a prophecy about yehôvâh to Jesus.  Here is the scripture he quoted from the Tanakh and KJV: 

Isaiah 40:3-5 (Tanakh)

Isaiah 40:3-5 (KJV)

The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), make straight in the desert a highway for our God.  Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) hath spoken it. The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.  Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

The first thing I noticed is that there is no mention of the salvation of God in translations made from contemporary Hebrew.  So I compared Luke’s Greek to the Septuagint.

Luke 3:4b-6 (NET parallel Greek)

Isaiah 40:3, 4, 5 (Septuagint)

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ· ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν
πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς |εὐθείαν| καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία
καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν

Here are both clauses: καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου (NETS: “Then the glory of the Lord shall appear”), καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ (NETS: “and all flesh shall see the salvation of God”).  Luke only quoted the latter.  I am less concerned that he ended his quotation before ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν (NETS: “because the Lord has spoken”[11]).  Luke also substituted αὐτοῦ (his) for τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν (for our God) and ὁδοὺς λείας (ways will be made smooth) for πεδία (places plain).

I compared Isaiah 40:3-5 from the BLB version of the Septuagint with the Elpenor version (Table1 below).  The only difference was ὁδοὺς λείας rather than πεδία.  That alleviated my initial concern somewhat.  If believers had changed πεδία to ὁδοὺς λείας to conform better to Luke’s quotation, why didn’t they go all out and change τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν to αὐτοῦ and drop καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου all together?  These may be two distinct versions of the Septuagint.  So why not imagine a third version that conforms even better to Luke’s quotation?

Frankly, without having a third version in hand for comparison I don’t want the complication.  Paul called Jesus τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ (our great God) in an ostensibly private letter to Titus.  I could see Luke’s substitution of αὐτοῦ for τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν as a courtesy to believing Jews.  The word αὐτοῦ (his) referring back to yehôvâh did not change the meaning at all, but it was a softer touch than calling Jesus our God.  And Luke may have dropped καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου (NETS: “Then the glory of the Lord shall appear”) at the Holy Spirit’s behest.  Jesus’ first advent was by no means the full revelation of his glory as yehôvâh come in human flesh (Malachi 3:1-7a Tanakh). 

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the LORD (ʼădônây, האדון), whom ye seek (Revelation 19:11-16), shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) of hosts.  But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’ soap: And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD (yehôvâh, ליהוה) an offering in righteousness.  Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the LORD (yehôvâh, ליהוה), as in the days of old, and as in former years.

And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger from his right, and fear not me, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) of hosts.  For I am the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה), I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed.  Even from the days of your fathers ye are gone away from mine ordinances, and have not kept them.  Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) of hosts.

So they [the local Jewish leaders] began to leave, Luke wrote, unable to agree among themselves, after Paul made one last statement: “The Holy Spirit spoke rightly to your ancestors through the prophet Isaiah when he said, ‘Go to this people and say,[12]You will keep on hearing, but will never understand, and you will keep on looking, but will never perceive.  For the heart of this people has become dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal[13] them.”’
“Therefore be advised that this[14] salvation (σωτήριον) from God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen!”[15]

Here is a table comparing Luke’s Greek with the Septuagint.  The BLB and Elpenor versions of the Septuagint are compared in Table2 below.

Acts 28:26b, 27 (NET parallel Greek) Isaiah 6:9b, 10 (Septuagint)
πορεύθητι πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον καὶ εἰπόν ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε
ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς

For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, Paul wrote believers in Rome, so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel until[16] the full number (πλήρωμα) of the Gentiles has come in.[17]  This time of parital hardening until the full number of the Gentiles has come in is predicated upon Gentiles listening: they will listen (ἀκούσονται, a form of ἀκούω), Paul wrote, or hear.  This hearing is a bit more complicated than it might at first appear.  Surely, from the human side it requires both a willingness and capacity to sit quietly long enough to provide the opportunity for hearing.  It also involves God sending those who are qualified to preach (Romans 10:14b, 15a NET):

And how are they to believe[18] in one they have not heard (ἤκουσαν, another form of ἀκούω) of?  And how are they to hear[19] (ἀκούσωσιν, another form of ἀκούω) without someone preaching to them?  And how are they to preach[20] unless they are sent (ἀποσταλῶσιν, a form of ἀποστέλλω)?

Still, hearing only comes through God’s (or Christ’s) own spoken word: So then faith comes by hearing (ἀκοῆς, a form of ἀκοή), and hearing (ἀκοὴ, another form of ἀκοή) by the word (ρήματος, a form of ῥῆμα) of God.[21]  Even after all the time they spent with Him, Jesus’ disciples weren’t able to put it all together until he opened (διήνοιξεν, a form of διανοίγω) their minds: Then he opened their minds so they could understand (συνιέναι, a form of συνίημι) the scriptures[22]  Witnessing the failure of any of these things in Gentiles as they become manifest in the descendants of Jacob signals the end of this time of Israel’s partial hardening (Titus 2:11-14 NET).

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation[23] (σωτήριος, another form of σωτήριον) to all people.  It trains us to reject godless ways and worldly desires and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age, as we wait for the happy fulfillment of our hope in the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ.  He gave himself for us to set us free from every kind of lawlessness and to purify for himself a people who are truly his, who are eager to do good.

Tables comparing Isaiah 40:3-5 and Isaiah 6:9, 10 in the Elpenor and BLB versions of the Septuagint, and tables of Luke 2:26; 2:28; 3:1, 2; 3:4; Acts 28:26-28; Romans 11:25; 10:14, 15; 10:17 and Titus 2:11 comparing the NET and KJV follow.

Isaiah 40:3-5 (Septuagint Elpenor) Isaiah 40:3, 4, 5 (Septuagint BLB)
φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ· ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου. εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν. φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν
πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία
καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα Κυρίου, καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σάρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησε. καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν
Isaiah 6:9b, 10 (Septuagint Elpenor) Isaiah 6:9b, 10 (Septuagint BLB)
πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ· ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε πορεύθητι καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε
ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου, καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσι τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσι καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσι, καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσι, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς
Luke 2:26 (NET) Luke 2:26 (KJV)
It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord’s Christ.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
καὶ ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν [ἢ] ἂν ἴδῃ τὸν χριστὸν κυρίου και ην αυτω κεχρηματισμενον υπο του πνευματος του αγιου μη ιδειν θανατον πριν η ιδη τον χριστον κυριου και ην αυτω κεχρηματισμενον υπο του πνευματος του αγιου μη ιδειν θανατον πριν η ιδη τον χριστον κυριου
Luke 2:28 (NET) Luke 2:28 (KJV)
Simeon took him in his arms and blessed God, saying, Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας καὶ εὐλόγησεν τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἶπεν και αυτος εδεξατο αυτο εις τας αγκαλας αυτου και ευλογησεν τον θεον και ειπεν και αυτος εδεξατο αυτο εις τας αγκαλας αυτου και ευλογησεν τον θεον και ειπεν
Luke 3:1, 2 (NET) Luke 3:1, 2 (KJV)
In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Ἐν ἔτει δὲ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ τῆς ἡγεμονίας Τιβερίου Καίσαρος, ἡγεμονεύοντος Ποντίου Πιλάτου τῆς Ἰουδαίας, καὶ τετρααρχοῦντος τῆς Γαλιλαίας Ἡρῴδου, Φιλίππου δὲ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ τετρααρχοῦντος τῆς Ἰτουραίας καὶ Τραχωνίτιδος χώρας, καὶ Λυσανίου τῆς Ἀβιληνῆς τετρααρχοῦντος εν ετει δε πεντεκαιδεκατω της ηγεμονιας τιβεριου καισαρος ηγεμονευοντος ποντιου πιλατου της ιουδαιας και τετραρχουντος της γαλιλαιας ηρωδου φιλιππου δε του αδελφου αυτου τετραρχουντος της ιτουραιας και τραχωνιτιδος χωρας και λυσανιου της αβιληνης τετραρχουντος εν ετει δε πεντεκαιδεκατω της ηγεμονιας τιβεριου καισαρος ηγεμονευοντος ποντιου πιλατου της ιουδαιας και τετραρχουντος της γαλιλαιας ηρωδου φιλιππου δε του αδελφου αυτου τετραρχουντος της ιτουραιας και τραχωνιτιδος χωρας και λυσανιου της αβιληνης τετραρχουντος
during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness. Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως  Ἅννα καὶ Καϊάφα, ἐγένετο ρῆμα θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν Ζαχαρίου υἱὸν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ επ αρχιερεων αννα και καιαφα εγενετο ρημα θεου επι ιωαννην τον του ζαχαριου υιον εν τη ερημω επι αρχιερεως αννα και καιαφα εγενετο ρημα θεου επι ιωαννην τον ζαχαριου υιον εν τη ερημω
Luke 3:4 (NET) Luke 3:4 (KJV)
As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, “The voice of one shouting in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths straight. As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ ως γεγραπται εν βιβλω λογων ησαιου του προφητου λεγοντος φωνη βοωντος εν τη ερημω ετοιμασατε την οδον κυριου ευθειας ποιειτε τας τριβους αυτου ως γεγραπται εν βιβλω λογων ησαιου του προφητου λεγοντος φωνη βοωντος εν τη ερημω ετοιμασατε την οδον κυριου ευθειας ποιειτε τας τριβους αυτου
Acts 28:26-28 (NET) Acts 28:26-28 (KJV)
when he said, ‘Go to this people and say, “You will keep on hearing, but will never understand, and you will keep on looking, but will never perceive. Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive:
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
λέγων πορεύθητι πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον καὶ εἰπόν ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε λεγον πορευθητι προς τον λαον τουτον και ειπε ακοη ακουσετε και ου μη συνητε και βλεποντες βλεψετε και ου μη ιδητε λεγον πορευθητι προς τον λαον τουτον και ειπον ακοη ακουσετε και ου μη συνητε και βλεποντες βλεψετε και ου μη ιδητε
For the heart of this people has become dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.”’ For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς επαχυνθη γαρ η καρδια του λαου τουτου και τοις ωσιν βαρεως ηκουσαν και τους οφθαλμους αυτων εκαμμυσαν μηποτε ιδωσιν τοις οφθαλμοις και τοις ωσιν ακουσωσιν και τη καρδια συνωσιν και επιστρεψωσιν και ιασωμαι αυτους επαχυνθη γαρ η καρδια του λαου τουτου και τοις ωσιν βαρεως ηκουσαν και τους οφθαλμους αυτων εκαμμυσαν μηποτε ιδωσιν τοις οφθαλμοις και τοις ωσιν ακουσωσιν και τη καρδια συνωσιν και επιστρεψωσιν και ιασομαι αυτους
“Therefore be advised that this salvation from God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen!” Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and that they will hear it.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
γνωστὸν οὖν  ἔστω |ὑμῖν| ὅτι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἀπεστάλη τοῦτο τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ· αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀκούσονται γνωστον ουν εστω υμιν οτι τοις εθνεσιν απεσταλη το σωτηριον του θεου αυτοι και ακουσονται γνωστον ουν εστω υμιν οτι τοις εθνεσιν απεσταλη το σωτηριον του θεου αυτοι και ακουσονται
Romans 11:25 (NET) Romans 11:25 (KJV)
For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Οὐ γὰρ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ ἦτε [παρ᾿] ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι, ὅτι πώρωσις ἀπὸ μέρους τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γέγονεν ἄχρι οὗ τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσέλθῃ ου γαρ θελω υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι το μυστηριον τουτο ινα μη ητε παρ εαυτοις φρονιμοι οτι πωρωσις απο μερους τω ισραηλ γεγονεν αχρις ου το πληρωμα των εθνων εισελθη ου γαρ θελω υμας αγνοειν αδελφοι το μυστηριον τουτο ινα μη ητε παρ εαυτοις φρονιμοι οτι πωρωσις απο μερους τω ισραηλ γεγονεν αχρις ου το πληρωμα των εθνων εισελθη
Romans 10:14, 15 (NET) Romans 10:14, 15 (KJV)
How are they to call on one they have not believed in?  And how are they to believe in one they have not heard of?  And how are they to hear without someone preaching to them? How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Πῶς οὖν ἐπικαλέσωνται εἰς ὃν οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν; πῶς δὲ πιστεύσωσιν οὗ οὐκ ἤκουσαν; πῶς δὲ ἀκούσωσιν χωρὶς κηρύσσοντος πως ουν επικαλεσονται εις ον ουκ επιστευσαν πως δε πιστευσουσιν ου ουκ ηκουσαν πως δε ακουσουσιν χωρις κηρυσσοντος πως ουν επικαλεσονται εις ον ουκ επιστευσαν πως δε πιστευσουσιν ου ουκ ηκουσαν πως δε ακουσουσιν χωρις κηρυσσοντος
And how are they to preach unless they are sent?  As it is written, “How timely is the arrival of those who proclaim the good news.” And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
πῶς δὲ κηρύξωσιν ἐὰν μὴ ἀποσταλῶσιν; |καθὼς| γέγραπται· ὡς ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων [τὰ] ἀγαθά πως δε κηρυξουσιν εαν μη αποσταλωσιν καθως γεγραπται ως ωραιοι οι ποδες των ευαγγελιζομενων ειρηνην των ευαγγελιζομενων τα αγαθα πως δε κηρυξουσιν εαν μη αποσταλωσιν καθως γεγραπται ως ωραιοι οι ποδες των ευαγγελιζομενων ειρηνην των ευαγγελιζομενων τα αγαθα
Romans 10:17 (NET) Romans 10:17 (KJV)
Consequently faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the preached word of Christ. So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
ἄρα ἡ πίστις ἐξ ἀκοῆς, ἡ δὲ ἀκοὴ διὰ ρήματος Χριστοῦ αρα η πιστις εξ ακοης η δε ακοη δια ρηματος θεου αρα η πιστις εξ ακοης η δε ακοη δια ρηματος θεου
Titus 2:11 (NET) Titus 2:11 (KJV)
For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all people. For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
NET Parallel Greek Stephanus Textus Receptus Byzantine Majority Text
Ἐπεφάνη γὰρ ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ σωτήριος πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις επεφανη γαρ η χαρις του θεου η σωτηριος πασιν ανθρωποις επεφανη γαρ η χαρις του θεου η σωτηριος πασιν ανθρωποις

[1] Aaron and his sons (Exodus 28:43 NET)

[2] Exodus 29:33 (NET)

[3] Atonement, Part 7; Atonement, Part 8

[4] This is according to Strong’s Concordance.  On Bible Hub the forms were derived from σωτήριος.

[5] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἂν preceding he had seen.  The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text did not.

[6] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αυτου (KJV: his) here.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[7] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had τετρααρχοῦντος here and two other occurrences, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had τετραρχουντος.

[8] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had αρχιερεων (KJV: high priests) here, where the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ἀρχιερέως.

[9] The Stephanus Textus Receptus had τον του here, where the NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had simply τον.

[10] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had λεγοντος (KJV: saying) here following prophet.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

[11] Isaiah 40:5 (NETS)

[12] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had εἰπόν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had ειπε.

[13] The NET parallel Greek text, NA28 and Byzantine Majority Text had ἰάσομαι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus had ιασωμαι (KJV: should heal).

[14] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had τοῦτο τὸ here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had simply τὸ.

[15] Acts 28:25-28 (NET)

[16] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἄχρι here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had αχρις.

[17] Romans 11:25 (NET)

[18] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had πιστεύσωσιν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had πιστευσουσιν (KJV: shall they believe).

[19] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had ἀκούσωσιν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had ακουσουσιν (KJV: shall they hear).

[20] The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had κηρύξωσιν here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had κηρυξουσιν (KJV: shall they preach).

[21] Romans 10:17 (NKJV) The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 had Χριστοῦ (NET: Christ) here, where the Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had θεου.

[22] Luke 24:45 (NET)

[23] The Stephanus Textus Receptus and Byzantine Majority Text had the article η preceding salvation.  The NET parallel Greek text and NA28 did not.

Romans, Part 73

I’ll continue to consider the dark side of Contribute (κοινωνοῦντες, a form of κοινωνέω) to the needs of the saints, pursue hospitality;[1] namely (2 John 1:9-11 NET):

Everyone who goes on ahead and does not remain in the teaching of Christ does not have God.  The one who remains in this teaching has both the Father and the Son.  If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house and do not give him any greeting, because the person who gives him a greeting shares (κοινωνεῖ, another form of κοινωνέω) in his evil deeds.

I turn here to Love the Lord your Godwith all your mind (διανοίας, a form of διάνοια).[2]  Jesus didn’t say anything negative about the Pharisees’ or the law experts’ διανοίας.  He opened his disciples’ νοῦν, implying that they were closed formerly: Then he opened their minds (νοῦν, a form of νοῦς) so they could understand (συνιέναι, a form of συνίημι) the scriptures[3]  If I had known this when I began this study would I have called it something other than the religious mind?  Probably not.  I’m a Gentile with a philosophical bent to my mind.  Paul had something to say about that even if Jesus did not.

Though Pharisees and law experts might not have considered a Gentile mind religious, I’m using the term to mean all human efforts to satisfy (or, replace) a god or God (yehôvâh).  Even atheists can have religious minds as I use the term.  In fact my religious mind eventually undermined my atheism.  When I wanted to consider myself good again I invented “more realistic” rules than yehôvâh’s to obey.  I failed to obey them.  So I made “even more realistic” rules.  Eventually my standards were so low even I realized they were unworkable.  And I still wasn’t keeping them!

So I say this, and insist in the Lord, Paul wrote the church at Ephesus, that you no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking (νοὸς, another form of νοῦς).  They are darkened in their understanding (διανοίᾳ, another form of διάνοια), being alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance (ἄγνοιαν, a form of ἄγνοια) that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts.[4]  So, loving yehôvâh with all your mind is equivalent to loving Him with all of one’s understanding.

The solution, by the way, to futile thinking was: You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old (παλαιὸν, a form of παλαιός) man (ἄνθρωπον, a form of ἄνθρωπος) who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, to be renewed in the spirit of your mind (νοὸς, another form of νοῦς), and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth.[5]  The old man we are to lay aside is our old (παλαιὸς) man (ἄνθρωπος) [that] was crucified with [Christ] so that the body of sin would no longer dominate us, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin.[6]  Again, sharing in his death and resurrection through faith in Jesus proves to be an important aspect of the Gospel (Romans 6:3, 4 NET).

Or do you not know that as many as were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we have been buried with him through baptism into death, in order that just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too may live a new life.

And you were at one time strangers and enemies in your minds (διανοίᾳ, another form of διάνοια) as expressed through your evil deeds,[7] Paul wrote Gentiles in Colossae.  The Greek words translated evil deeds here are τοῖς ἔργοις τοῖς πονηροῖς (a form of πονηρός).  In reference to Gentiles I have no doubt that Paul had sins in view, but even as an atheist my works were “full of labours, annoyances, and hardships.”  And although you were dead in your transgressions and sins, Paul wrote Gentiles in Ephesus, in which you formerly lived according to this world’s present path, according to the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the ruler of the spirit that is now energizing the sons of disobedience (ἀπειθείας, a form of ἀπείθεια), among whom all of us [even a former Pharisee] also formerly lived out our lives in the cravings of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and the mind (διανοιῶν, another form of διάνοια), and were by nature children of wrath even as the rest[8]

But God, Paul continued as he introduced the solution to this problem.  But first I want to consider yehôvâh’s promise of a new covenant.  For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord.  I will put my laws in their minds (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια) and I will inscribe them on their hearts (καρδίας, a form of καρδία).  And I will be their God and they will be my people.[9]  And again, This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put my laws on their hearts (καρδίας, a form of καρδία) and I will inscribe them on their minds (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια)[10]

This is a quotation from Jeremiah 31:33.  The Greek texts are compared below.

NET

Parallel Greek NETS

Septuagint

For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord.  I will put my laws in their minds and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people.

Hebrews 8:10

ὅτι αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη, ἣν διαθήσομαι τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰσραὴλ μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας, λέγει κύριος· διδοὺς νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς, καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονται μοι εἰς λαόν

Hebrews 8:10

…because this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, quoth the Lord.  Giving I will give my laws in their mind, and I will write them on their hearts, and I will become a god to them, and they shall become a people to me.

Ieremias 38:33 (31:33)

ὅτι αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη ἣν διαθήσομαι τῷ οἴκῳ Ισραηλ μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας φησὶν κύριος διδοὺς δώσω νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν γράψω αὐτούς καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν

Jeremiah 31:33

And there will be no need at all for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying, Know (γνῶθι, a form of γινώσκω) the Lord, since they will all know (εἰδήσουσιν, a form of εἴδω; e.g., to know by seeing) me, from the least to the greatest,[11] the first passage continued.  The Greek texts are compared below:

NET

Parallel Greek NETS

Septuagint

And there will be no need at all for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying, Know the Lord, since they will all know me, from the least to the greatest.

Hebrews 8:11

καὶ οὐ μὴ διδάξωσιν ἕκαστος τὸν πολίτην αὐτοῦ καὶ ἕκαστος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ λέγων· γνῶθι τὸν κύριον, ὅτι πάντες εἰδήσουσιν με ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου αὐτῶν

Hebrews 8:11

And they shall not teach, each his fellow citizen and each his brother, saying, “Know the Lord,” because they shall all know me, from their small even to their great…

Ieremias 38:34a (31:34a)

καὶ οὐ μὴ διδάξωσιν ἕκαστος τὸν πολίτην αὐτοῦ καὶ ἕκαστος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ λέγων γνῶθι τὸν κύριον ὅτι πάντες εἰδήσουσίν με ἀπὸ μικροῦ αὐτῶν καὶ ἕως μεγάλου αὐτῶν

Jeremiah 31:34a

And this knowing is eternal life according to Jesus: Now this is eternal life – that they know (γινώσκωσιν, another form of γινώσκω) you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you sent.[12]  And we know (οἴδαμεν, another form of εἴδω) that the Son of God has come and has given us insight (διάνοιαν, another form of διάνοια) to know him who is true, John wrote, and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ.  This one is the true God and eternal life.[13]  The gift the Son of God has given here is διάνοιαν, the mind, understanding or insight with which we love yehôvâh.  Diminishing the scope of this gift to a place in heaven while turning back to the futility of [our former] thinking to work our own works of righteousness in our own strength demeans both Jesus and eternal life.

But God, being rich in mercy, Paul continued writing Gentiles in Ephesus, because of his great love with which he loved us, even though we were dead in transgressions, made us alive together with Christ – by grace you are saved! –and he raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus, to demonstrate in the coming ages the surpassing wealth of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.  For by grace you are saved through faith, and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God; it is not from works, so that no one can boast.  For we are his workmanship, having been created in Christ Jesus for good works that God prepared beforehand so we may do them.[14]

Love the Lord your Godwith all your strength (ἰσχύος, a form of ἰσχύς).[15]  I pray that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, Paul wrote Gentiles at Ephesus, the Father of glory, may give you spiritual wisdom and revelation in your growing knowledge (ἐπιγνώσει, a form of ἐπίγνωσις) of him, – since the eyes of your heart have been enlightened – so that you may know what is the hope of his calling, what is the wealth of his glorious inheritance in the saints, and what is the incomparable greatness of his power toward us who believe, as displayed in the exercise of his immense (ἰσχύος, a form of ἰσχύς) strength.[16]  Finally, he added, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength (ἰσχύος, a form of ἰσχύς) of his power.[17]

To attempt to function on our own away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his strength (ἰσχύος, a form of ἰσχύς) was Paul’s description of eternal destruction: They will undergo the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his strength[18]  Whoever speaks, Peter wrote, let it be with God’s words.  Whoever serves, do so with the strength (ἰσχύος, a form of ἰσχύς) that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ.  To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever.  Amen.[19]  If we believe Him his ἰσχύος is our ἰσχύος, the ἰσχύος with which we love yehôvâh.

This[20] is the teaching of Christ as presented in the New Testament as opposed to the teaching of the religious mind.  Is it the teaching your teachers bring to you?  If not the person who gives him a greeting shares in his evil deeds, according to John.  I would be very wary of supporting that teacher financially.  This gives us a context for Paul’s admonition (Galatians 6:6-10 NET)

Now the one who receives instruction in the word must share (Κοινωνείτω, another form of κοινωνέω) all good things (ἀγαθοῖς, a form of ἀγαθός) with the one who teaches it.  Do not be deceived.  God will not be made a fool.  For a person will reap what he sows, because the person who sows to his own flesh will reap corruption from the flesh, but the one who sows to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit.  So we must not grow weary in doing good, for in due time we will reap, if we do not give up.  So then, whenever we have an opportunity, let us do good (ἀγαθὸν, another form of ἀγαθός) to all people, and especially to those who belong to the family of faith.

The teaching of Christ sows to the Spirit.  The teaching of the religious mind sows to [our] own flesh.  Money is not the only, or even the primary, good thing to share with the teacher of the word, the one who remains in the teaching of Christ“No servant can serve two masters,” Jesus said, “for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other.  You cannot serve God and money.”  The Pharisees [e.g., the New Testament epitome of those with religious minds] (who loved money) heard all this and ridiculed him.[21]

And need is the key to help make a determination what to contribute or share in.  The primary needs of all believers are: 1) the need to be baptized by Jesus in the Holy Spirit; 2) to believe that his Father knows our needs before we ask Him, and that He is willing to supply our needs; and 3) to accept that our most pressing need is to sit at Jesus’ feet, to listen and to live by every word that comes from the mouth of God.

But whoever has the world’s possessions and sees his fellow Christian in need (χρείαν, a form of χρεία), John wrote, and shuts off his compassion against him, how can the love of God reside in such a person?[22]  Make every effort to help Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their way, Paul wrote Titus, make sure they have what they need (ἵνα μηδὲν αὐτοῖς λείπῃ; so that nothing or no one of theirs is left behind).  Here is another way that our people can learn to engage in good works to meet pressing needs (χρείας, another form of χρεία) and so not be unfruitful.[23]

My purpose was not to minimize these more obvious aspects of contributing to the needs of the saints, but to highlight how much broader this contributing, or sharing in, actually is in the New Testament.  I’ll conclude this with Peter’s contribution to the needs of the saints as something which we all share with one another (1 Peter 4:12-14 NET):

Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you.  But rejoice (χαίρετε, a form of χαίρω) in the degree that you have shared (κοινωνεῖτε, another form of κοινωνέω) in the sufferings (παθήμασιν, a form of πάθημα) of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice (ἀγαλλιώμενοι, a form of ἀγαλλιάω) and be glad (χαρῆτε, another form of χαίρω).  If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you.

Do not neglect hospitality (φιλοξενίας , a form of φιλονεξία), because through it some have entertained angels without knowing it.[24]  This is the only other occurrence of a form of φιλονεξία in the New Testament.  But I hope I have been persuasive that when Paul wrote pursue hospitality (φιλοξενίαν, another form of φιλονεξία) he did not intend to pen a “law of Paul,” a rule to be obeyed, something to pursue (διώκοντες, a form of διώκω) in one’s own strength.  His intent was that this “love to strangers” would flow naturally (e.g., supernaturally) from the Spirit of God through the believer and out into the world, one of the good works that God prepared beforehand so we may do them.[25]

[1] Romans 12:13 (NET)

[2] Mark 12:30a (NET)

[3] Luke 24:45 (NET)

[4] Ephesians 4:17, 18 (NET)

[5] Ephesians 4:22-24 (NET)

[6] Romans 6:6 (NET)

[7] Colossians 1:21 (NET)

[8] Ephesians 2:1-3 (NET)

[9] Hebrews 8:10 (NET)

[10] Hebrews 10:16 (NET)

[11] Hebrews 8:11 (NET)

[12] John 17:3 (NET)

[13] 1 John 5:20 (NET)

[14] Ephesians 2:4-10 (NET)

[15] Mark 12:30a (NET)

[16] Ephesians 1:17-19 (NET)

[17] Ephesians 6:10 (NET)

[18] 2 Thessalonians 1:9 (NET)

[19] 1 Peter 4:11 (NET)

[20] I am considering Romans, Part 71 and Romans, Part 72 here as well, not as an exhaustive study but as a fairly thorough study of the teaching of Christ on the issue of contributing.

[21] Luke 16:13, 14 (NET)

[22] 1 John 3:17 (NET)

[23] Titus 3:13, 14 (NET)

[24] Hebrews 13:2 (NET)

[25] Ephesians 2:10b (NET)