I’ve considered, For I tell you that Christ has become a servant of the circumcised on behalf of God’s truth to confirm the promises made to the fathers. Jesus was the only living descendant of Abraham worthy of the promised land and the kingdom of God at the moment both were taken (70 A.D.) from Abraham’s other descendants through Isaac. As I write this they have regained partial control of the land and have been wresting more bit by bit from the descendants of Abram through Ishmael.
Manfred Davidmann wrote “that the Jewish people were expelled twice from the country God promised them with their grip on the country weakening at the present time.” His prescription was that the Israelis should fashion a welfare state more or less like the federal government of the United States of America. I will suggest that recognizing Jesus the Messiah as yehôvâh their God will better serve both purposes, holding the promised land and regaining the kingdom of God.
Not all the children [are] Abraham’s true descendants, Paul wrote believers in Rome, rather “through Isaac will your descendants be counted.” This means it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God; rather, the children of promise are counted as descendants. For this is what the promise declared: “About a year from now I will return and Sarah will have a son.” That alone may be reason enough for present day Israelis to defeat the present day descendants of Ishmael militarily. But a lack of military prowess was probably not the reason the descendants of Isaac lost the land, and certainly not the reason they lost the kingdom of God. It was always their failure to placate yehôvâh with sacrifices and offerings (Isaiah 66:1-3 Tanakh):
Thus saith the LORD, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest? For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.
He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog’s neck; he that offereth an oblation, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol.
Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations.
Not only that, Paul continued his letter to Roman believers, but when Rebekah had conceived children by one man, our ancestor Isaac – even before they were born or had done anything good or bad (so that God’s purpose in election would stand, not by works but by his calling) – it was said to her, “The older will serve the younger,” just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.” God’s purpose in election is where I can see how the Gentiles glorify God for his mercy is logically dependent on Christ has become a servant of the circumcised on behalf of God’s truth to confirm the promises made to the fathers. Paul also wrote believers in Rome (Romans 11:5-8 NET):
So in the same way [e.g., as in the time of Elijah] at the present time there is a remnant chosen by grace. And if it is by grace, it is no longer by works, otherwise grace would no longer be grace. What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was diligently seeking, but the elect obtained it. The rest were hardened, as it is written, “God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that would not see and ears that would not hear, to this very day.”
I take this to mean that apart from nearly eight centuries of yehôvâh’s hardening Jesus is born among a people who receive Him as Messiah and as yehôvâh their God, and that’s all she wrote: For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? We Gentiles who are alive today and believe in Jesus would never have been born of the flesh, not to mention redeemed by his grace (Romans 11:25-36 NET).
For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The Deliverer will come out of Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob. And this is my covenant with them, when I take away their sins.”
In regard to the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but in regard to election they are dearly loved for the sake of the fathers. For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable. Just as you were formerly disobedient to God, but have now received mercy due to their disobedience, so they too have now been disobedient in order that, by the mercy shown to you, they too may now receive mercy. For God has consigned all people to disobedience so that he may show mercy to them all.
Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how fathomless his ways! For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor? Or who has first given to God, that God needs to repay him?
For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever! Amen.
And thus the Gentiles glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, “Because of this I will confess you among the Gentiles, and I will sing praises to your name.”
Romans 15:9b (NET)
Septuagint Psalm 18:49
|Because of this I will confess you among the Gentiles, and I will sing praises to your name.
||διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαι σοι ἐν ἔθνεσιν καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι σου ψαλῶ
||διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι ἐν ἔθνεσιν κύριε καὶ τῷ ὀνόματί σου ψαλῶ
I notice that as Paul put these words in the resurrected Jesus’ mouth he quoted the Septuagint verbatim except he removed the word κύριε (a form of κύριος), Lord, yehôvâh in Hebrew. By doing likewise I can hear these words as Paul heard them spoken by Messiah to God his Father the morning of his resurrection (Psalm 18:46-50 NET):
The Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) is alive! My protector is praiseworthy! The God (ʼĕlôahh, אלוהי) who delivers me is exalted as king! The one true God (ʼêl, האל) completely vindicates me; he makes nations submit to me. He delivers me from my enemies; you snatch me away from those who attack me; you rescue me from violent men. So I will give you thanks before the nations…I will sing praises to you! He gives his chosen king magnificent victories; he is faithful to his chosen ruler, to David and his descendants (zeraʽ, ולזרעו; singular) forever.
The Hebrew word translated The one true God above was translated High God in Genesis. Melchizedek was king of Salem and priest of the Most High God (ʼêl, לאל). He blessed Abram, saying (Genesis 14:19, 20 NET):
“Blessed be Abram by the Most High God (ʼêl, לאל), Creator of heaven and earth. Worthy of praise is the Most High God (ʼêl, אל), who delivered your enemies into your hand.” Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything.
To Abram yehôvâh (יהוה) was the Most High God (ʼêl, אל), Creator of heaven and earth. The pattern is similar in Genesis 1 and 2: In the beginning God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) created the heavens and the earth. This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created – when the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) made the earth and heavens. There is no sense of contradiction or correction in either instance. I described yehôvâh as “one of the ʼĕlôhı̂ym” because I don’t fully grasp the oneness of the ʼĕlôhı̂ym.
The Hebrew word ʼĕlôhı̂ym is “a plural form” which “refers to the one true God” with a “singular verb…as here.” Linguistically that would be a oneness of action implying a oneness of purpose, significantly different from the warring gods of the Gentiles, created by Gentiles in their own image. I don’t have any reason to dispute that God is a oneness in essence, I just don’t know what I mean when I say it. I know Trinitarians get really angry when I don’t say it. Holy Father, Jesus prayed, keep [those you have given me] safe in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one just as we are one. Am I looking forward to a oneness of action and purpose or a oneness in essence? So I wondered if ʼêl and ʼĕlôahh might be ones of the ʼĕlôhı̂ym as well as yehôvâh. But as far as Abram was concerned yehôvâh is ʼêl.
Moses prophesied (Deuteronomy 32:15-18 NET):
But Jeshurun became fat and kicked, you got fat, thick, and stuffed! Then he deserted the God (ʼĕlôahh, אלוה) who made him, and treated the Rock who saved him with contempt. They made him jealous with other gods (zûr, בזרים), they enraged him with abhorrent idols. They sacrificed to demons, not God (ʼĕlôahh, אלה), to gods (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) they had not known; to new gods who had recently come along, gods your ancestors had not known about. You have forgotten the Rock who fathered you, and put out of mind the God (ʼêl, אל) who gave you birth.
But David wrote: Indeed, who is God (ʼĕlôahh, אלוה) besides the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה)? Who is a protector besides our God (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהינו)? The one true God (ʼêl, האל) gives me strength. Much as I would like to see ʼêl, yehôvâh, and ʼĕlôahh as the three persons of a triune ʼĕlôhı̂ym, unless David was writing some I-am-he-as-you-are-he-as-you-are-me mysticism, I think I must accept ʼêl and ʼĕlôahh as generic terms for god.
And again it says, Paul continued, “Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.”
|Romans 15:10b (NET)
Septuagint Deuteronomy 32:43b
|Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.
||εὐφράνθητε, ἔθνη, μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ
||εὐφράνθητε ἔθνη μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ
It comes at the end of Moses’ prophecy about Israel’s defection (Deuteronomy 32:36-39a Septuagint).
For the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) will judge his people and be comforted over his slaves. For he saw them paralyzed, both failed under attack and enfeebled. And the Lord said: Where are their gods (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהימו), they in whom they trusted, the fat of whose sacrifices you were eating and were drinking the wine of their libations? See, see that I am, and there is no god (ʼĕlôhı̂ym, אלהים) except me.
Each of us re-enacts this scenario to some degree, trusting in ourselves, the pagan gods or something other than yehôvâh/Jesus until our strength is gone. I chose a translation of the Septuagint here because I learned something from the ancient rabbis I might have missed otherwise: He is comforted (Hebrew: nâcham, יתנחם; Greek: παρακληθήσεται, a form of παρακαλέω) by our helpless plight. We do not return to an angry, vengeful God who seeks to return us evil for our evil, but One who is comforted. And we are his slaves (Hebrew: ʽebed, עבדיו; Greek: δούλοις, a form δοῦλος) not because we have behaved obediently—we have been unbelieving and disobedient in this scenario—but because He has redeemed us with his blood (Isaiah 53:3-12 NET).
He was despised and rejected by people, one who experienced pain and was acquainted with illness; people hid their faces from him; he was despised, and we considered him insignificant. But he lifted up our illnesses, he carried our pain; even though we thought he was being punished, attacked by God, and afflicted for something he had done. He was wounded because of our rebellious deeds, crushed because of our sins; he endured punishment that made us well; because of his wounds we have been healed.
All of us had wandered off like sheep; each of us had strayed off on his own path, but the Lord (yehôvâh, ויהוה) caused the sin of all of us to attack him. He (e.g., yehôvâh) was treated harshly and afflicted, but he did not even open his mouth. Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block, like a sheep silent before her shearers, he did not even open his mouth. He was led away after an unjust trial – but who even cared?
Indeed, he was cut off from the land of the living; because of the rebellion of his own people he was wounded. They intended to bury him with criminals, but he ended up in a rich man’s tomb, because he had committed no violent deeds, nor had he spoken deceitfully.
Though the Lord (yehôvâh, ויהוה) desired to crush him and make him ill, once restitution is made, he will see descendants and enjoy long life, and the Lord’s (yehôvâh, יהוה) purpose will be accomplished through him. Having suffered, he will reflect on his work, he will be satisfied when he understands what he has done. “My servant will acquit many, for he carried their sins. So I will assign him a portion with the multitudes, he will divide the spoils of victory with the powerful, because he willingly submitted to death and was numbered with the rebels, when he lifted up the sin of many and intervened on behalf of the rebels.”
Though He is comforted over his slaves (those redeemed by his blood), yehôvâh’s enemies incur his wrath (Deuteronomy 32:41b-43 Septuagint):
I will repay my enemies with a sentence, and those who hate me I will repay. I will make my arrows drunk with blood—and my dagger shall devour flesh—with the blood of the wounded and of captives, from the head of the commanders of the enemies.
Be glad, O skies, with him, and let all the divine sons do obeisance to him. Be glad, O nations, with his people, and let all the angels of God prevail for him. For he will avenge the blood of his sons and take revenge and repay the enemies with a sentence, and he will repay those who hate, and the Lord shall cleanse the land of his people [NET: make atonement for his land and people].
And again, Paul continued, “Praise the Lord all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples praise him.”
Romans 15:11 (NET)
Septuagint Psalm 117:1
|Praise the Lord all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples praise him.
||αἰνεῖτε, πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, τὸν κύριον καὶ ἐπαινεσάτωσαν αὐτὸν πάντες οἱ λαοί
||αλληλουια αἰνεῖτε τὸν κύριον πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπαινέσατε αὐτόν πάντες οἱ λαοί
In context [Psalm 116(117) Septuagint]:
Hallelouia. Praise the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה), all you nations! Commend him, all you peoples, because his mercy became strong toward us, and the truth of the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) endures forever.
And again Isaiah says, Paul continued, “The root of Jesse will come, and the one who rises to rule over the Gentiles, in him will the Gentiles hope.”
Romans 15:12 (NET)
Septuagint Isaiah 11:10a
|The root of Jesse will come, and the one who rises to rule over the Gentiles, in him will the Gentiles hope.
||ἔσται ἡ ρίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν, ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν
||ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ (a form of ἐκεῖνος) ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ιεσσαι καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν
In context (Isaiah 11:10-13 Septuagint):
And it shall be on that day [ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ; e.g., when asps will not hurt or be able to destroy anyone on my holy mountain, vv. 8, 9] the root of Iessai [e.g., Jessie], even the one who stands up to rule nations; nations shall hope in him, and his rest shall be honor. And it shall be on that day that the Lord (ʼădônây, אדני) will further display his hand to show zeal for the remnant that is left of the people, whatever is left from the Assyrians, and from Egypt and Babylonia and Ethiopia and from the Ailamites and from where the sun rises and out of Arabia. And he will raise a signal for the nations and will gather the lost ones of Israel and gather the dispersed of Ioudas (e.g., Judah, the southern kingdom) from the four points of the earth. And the jealousy of Ephraim (e.g., the northern kingdom of divided Israel) shall be taken away, and the enemies of Ioudas shall perish; Ephraim shall not be jealous of Ioudas, and Ioudas shall not afflict Ephraim.
Now may the God of hope, Paul continued, fill you with all joy (χαρᾶς, a form of χαρά) and peace (εἰρήνης, a form of εἰρήνη) as you believe in him, so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit. And, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy (χαρὰ, another form of χαρά), peace (εἰρήνη), patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. Against such things there is no law.
Romans, Part 86
 Romans 15:8 (NET)
 Romans 9:7-9 (NET)
 Romans 9:10-12 (NET)
 Romans 15:9a (NET)
 Romans 11:15 (NET)
 Romans 15:9 (NET)
 2 Samuel 7:12-16 (NET)
 Genesis 14:18 (NET)
 Genesis 14:22 (NET)
 Genesis 1:1 (NET)
 Genesis 2:4 (NET)
 NET note 2
 John 17:11b (NET)
 NET note 32: “Jeshurun is a term of affection derived from the Hebrew verb יָשַׁר (yashar, ‘be upright’). Here it speaks of Israel ‘in an ideal situation, with its “uprightness” due more to God’s help than his own efforts’ (M. Mulder, TDOT 6:475).”
 Psalm 18:31, 32a (NET)
 Romans 15:10 (NET)
 Romans 15:11 (NET)
 Romans 15:12 (NET)
 Romans 15:13 (NET)
 Galatians 5:22, 23 (NET)