Paul wrote the church at Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 5:12-18 NET):
Now we ask you, brothers and sisters, to acknowledge those who labor among you and preside over you in the Lord and admonish you, and to esteem them most highly in love because of their work. Be at peace among yourselves. And we urge you, brothers and sisters, admonish the undisciplined, comfort the discouraged, help the weak, be patient toward all. See that no one pays back evil for evil to anyone, but always pursue what is good for one another and for all. Always rejoice, constantly pray, in everything give thanks. For this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus.
At first glance it seems that Paul has written a fairly long list of “works” for believers to do. But I want to break it down a little bit.
|Now we ask you, brothers and sisters, to acknowledge (εἰδέναι, a form of εἴδω; to see, to notice)…||…those who labor among you and preside over you in the Lord and admonish you…because of their work.|
|…and to esteem (ἡγεῖσθαι, a form of ἡγέομαι) them most highly (ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ) in love (ἀγάπῃ, a form of ἀγάπη)…||But the fruit of the Spirit is love (ἀγάπη).|
So how hard is it really for me to notice those—who labor for my benefit, preside over me in the Lord and admonish me—because of their work? And then, once I have noticed, to take the love that wells up in me from the Holy Spirit and to esteem (or, lead) them [who labor so diligently on my behalf] most highly in love? I see only two things that make this difficult or even impossible: 1) I am not led by the Spirit of God and so I do not have this love for those who benefit me so greatly nor do I have eyes to see them; or, 2) they do not admonish me to live by the Spirit of God yet still expect me to love them in my own strength according to a rule Paul commanded. You will recognize them by their fruit, Jesus said.
|Be at peace (εἰρηνεύετε, a form of εἰρηνεύω) among yourselves.||But the fruit of the Spirit is…peace (εἰρήνη, a form of εἰρήνη).|
So how hard is really to be at peace with others? Again, I see only two things that make this difficult or even impossible: 1) I am not led by the Spirit of God and so I do not have this peace to share with others; or, 2) they do not live by the Spirit of God but try to make peace in some arbitrary way according to a rule Paul commanded.
|And we urge you, brothers and sisters, admonish (νουθετεῖτε, a form of νουθετέω) the undisciplined…|
Paul used another form of νουθετέω earlier, those who…admonish (νουθετοῦντας) you. Admittedly, I don’t see a simple one-to-one correspondence with some aspect of the fruit of the Spirit here. But Paul believed that he did this in the power of the Holy Spirit: God wanted to make known to them, Paul wrote the Colossians, the glorious riches of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. We proclaim him by instructing (νουθετοῦντες, another form of νουθετέω) and teaching all people with all wisdom so that we may present every person mature in Christ. Toward this goal I also labor, struggling according to his power that powerfully works in me.
If someone isn’t up to the task of instructing and teaching the undisciplined, Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and exhorting (νουθετοῦντες, another form of νουθετέω) one another with all wisdom, singing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, all with grace in your hearts to God. Just be sure those psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs proclaim the grace of God and the indwelling Spirit of Christ in you, the hope of glory rather than rules commanded by Paul or your church or your own imagination.
I’ll admit to being a bit gun-shy and perhaps even a little unfaithful about too many people attempting to instruct and teach as Paul did. But he wrote Roman believers, I myself am fully convinced [in the God of hope…by the power of the Holy Spirit] about you, my brothers and sisters, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, and able to instruct (νουθετεῖν, another form of νουθετέω) one another. This goodness (ἀγαθωσύνης, a form of ἀγαθωσύνη) flowed from the Hoy Spirit: But the fruit of the Spirit is…goodness (ἀγαθωσύνη).
Paul wrote about how to admonish one another: if anyone does not obey (ὑπακούει, a form of ὑπακούω) our message through this letter, take note of him and do not associate closely with him, so that he may be ashamed. Yet do not regard him as an enemy, but admonish (νουθετεῖτε, a form of νουθετέω) him as a brother. Even from among your own group men will arise, teaching perversions of the truth to draw the disciples away after them. Therefore be alert, remembering that night and day for three years I did not stop warning (νουθετῶν, another form of νουθετέω) each one of you with tears. And now I entrust you to God and to the message of his grace. This message is able to build you up and give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctified (ἡγιασμένοις, another form of ἁγιάζω).
|…comfort (παραμυθεῖσθε, a form of παραμυθέομαι) the discouraged (ὀλιγοψύχους, a form of ὀλιγόψυχος)…||But the fruit of the Spirit is…kindness (χρηστότης).|
This comfort was consolation in John’s Gospel narrative: many of the Jewish people of the region had come to Martha and Mary to console (παραμυθήσωνται, another form of παραμυθέομαι) them over the loss of their brother. And people who were with Mary in the house consoling (παραμυθούμενοι, another form of παραμυθέομαι) her…followed her to her brother’s tomb. As you know, Paul wrote the Thessalonians, we treated each one of you as a father treats his own children, exhorting and encouraging (παραμυθούμενοι, another form of παραμυθέομαι) you and insisting that you live in a way worthy of God who calls you to his own kingdom and his glory. The Greek word ὀλιγοψύχους, translated discouraged was only used this once. It is a compound of ὀλίγος (puny) and ψυχή (breath, spirit). The kindness of the Holy Spirit flows from the wealth of his kindness (χρηστότητος, a form of χρηστότης), forbearance, and patience…God’s kindness (χρηστὸν, a form χρηστός) leads you to repentance.
|…help (ἀντέχεσθε, a form of ἀντέχομαι) the weak (ἀσθενῶν, a form of ἀσθενής)…||But the fruit of the Spirit is love (ἀγάπη).|
The help (ἀντέχεσθε, a form of ἀντέχομαι) we are to be to the weak was translated he will be devoted (ἀνθέξεται, another form of ἀντέχομαι) in Matthew 6:24 (NET) and Luke 16:13 (NET). An elder must hold firmly (ἀντεχόμενον, another form of ἀντέχομαι) to the faithful message as it has been taught, so that he will be able to give exhortation (παρακαλεῖν, a form of παρακαλέω) in such healthy teaching and correct those who speak against it.
Any and all of us in the flesh qualify as the weak (ἀσθενῶν, a form of ἀσθενής): The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak (ἀσθενής). For while we were still helpless (ἀσθενῶν, a form of ἀσθενής), at the right time Christ died for the ungodly (ἀσεβῶν, a form of ἀσεβής). (For rarely will anyone die for a righteous person, though for a good person perhaps someone might possibly dare to die.) But God demonstrates his own love (ἀγάπην, a form of ἀγάπη) for us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. And apart from his love (ἀγάπη) flowing through us from his Holy Spirit we will continue to be the weak, those who live according to the flesh rather than those who live according to Spirit (Romans 8:5-14 NET).
For those who live according to the flesh have their outlook shaped by the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit have their outlook shaped by the things of the Spirit. For the outlook of the flesh is death, but the outlook of the Spirit is life and peace, because the outlook of the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able to do so. Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him. But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness. Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who lives in you.
So then, brothers and sisters, we are under obligation, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh (for if you live according to the flesh, you will die), but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God.
|…be patient (μακροθυμεῖτε, a form of μακροθυμέω) toward all.||But the fruit of the Spirit is…patience (μακροθυμία, a form of μακροθυμία).|
|See that no one pays back (ἀποδῷ, a form of ἀποδίδωμι) evil (κακὸν, a form of κακός) for evil (κακοῦ, another form of κακός) to anyone…||But the fruit of the Spirit is…faithfulness (πίστις).|
Surely, that we will be patient toward all with the patience that comes from the Holy Spirit requires no additional explanation from me. As for faith or faithfulness restraining us from paying back evil for evil: The Greek word translated evil was κακός, intrinsically evil, not πονηρός. I don’t mean to imply that if someone gives me a complicated list of rules to obey to make myself righteous that I am then free to do unto him as he has done unto me because Paul didn’t use πονηρός here. I mean that when someone does κακός, real intrinsic evil, to me I am inclined even as a Christian, perhaps especially as a Christian, to think all bets are off.
But Jesus said, the Son of Man will come with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he will reward (ἀποδώσει, another form of ἀποδίδωμι) each person according to what he has done. The Greek words ἀποδώσει, translated he will reward and ἀποδῷ, translated pays back, are both forms of ἀποδίδωμι. Jesus’ faithfulness flowing into me through his Holy Spirit can restrain my fists and my tongue, soothe my anger, in time cause me to forgive and pray mercy for the one who wronged me. My faith will accomplish none of this. For through the Spirit, by faith (πίστεως, another form of πίστις), we wait expectantly for the hope of righteousness. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision carries any weight – the only thing that matters is faith (πίστις) working through love (ἀγάπης, another form of ἀγάπη).
This is a good place to remind myself that I’m doing something very arbitrary in this essay, dividing the fruit of the Spirit into constituent parts. It is one, indivisible. In crisis moments that “water cannon” eroding away my ungodliness becomes fully that fountain of water springing up to eternal life , making me buoyant, lifting me above and beyond myself, flooding me with God’s own love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. Clearly, I might have written about ἐγκράτεια here. The main reason I did not is that pesky self in the NET translation.
|…but always pursue what is good (ἀγαθὸν, a form of ἀγαθός) for one another and for all.||But the fruit of the Spirit is…goodness (ἀγαθωσύνη).|
|Always rejoice (χαίρετε, a form of χαίρω)…||But the fruit of the Spirit is…joy (χαρὰ).|
Our pursuit of what is good is both directed and energized by God’s goodness flowing from his Holy Spirit. I’ve written elsewhere about relying on his joy.
|…constantly pray (προσεύχεσθε, a form of προσεύχομαι)…||In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness, for we do not know how we should pray (προσευξώμεθα, another form of προσεύχομαι), but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with inexpressible groanings. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes on behalf of the saints according to God’s will.|
Prayer is intimately bound up with being led by the Spirit. I would like to accentuate that we do not know how we should pray because the Spirit helps us in our weakness as opposed to our arrogance. The Greek words translated how we should were καθὸ δεῖ, according to necessity. From that time on Jesus began to show his disciples that he must (δεῖ) go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests, and experts in the law, and be killed, and on the third day be raised. Let me chase that immediately with a somewhat out of context but completely applicable verse: For if the eagerness is present, the gift itself is acceptable according to (καθὸ, a form of καθό) whatever one has, not according to (καθὸ, a form of καθό) what he does not have. Don’t be scared off by insufficient knowledge. I feel like a single guy telling married couples how they must have sex. This must is important enough even to do badly—and often.
Something that has helped me with both prayer and Bible study is a line from James: Understand this, my dear brothers and sisters! Let every person be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger. But again, that may be personal for me. I have a sharp tongue and a quick temper. Shutting up and listening in prayer brought me face to face so to speak with the virtually bottomless insanity of my own mind. But I won’t get into that here. Pray with the Holy Spirit rather than on your own.
|…in everything give thanks (εὐχαριστεῖτε, a form of εὐχαριστέω).||But the fruit of the Spirit is…faithfulness (πίστις).|
I returned again to faith. It seems like a good place to end. If I, for instance, hear everything Paul has written above as rules I must obey to prove that I am a Christian, I am weary, frightened and not very grateful. For this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus, Paul concluded this list. By faith I can hear this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus as this is what his Holy Spirit is doing in and through you moment by moment. And suddenly I’m not so weary, much less frightened and filled with gratitude. Paul continued writing about the Spirit, if we have ears to hear it (1 Thessalonians 5:19-22 NET).
Do not extinguish the Spirit. Do not treat prophecies with contempt. But examine all things; hold fast to what is good (καλὸν, a form of καλός). Stay away from every form of evil (πονηροῦ, a form of πονηρός).
And sometime I would do well to go through these in detail. But this essay has gone long and I need to get to the point. Paul concluded his remarks with the assurance that all of this is God’s work and not our own (1 Thessalonians 5:23, 24 NET):
Now may the God of peace himself make you completely holy (ἁγιάσαι, a form of ἁγιάζω; KJV, sanctify you wholly) and may your spirit and soul and body be kept entirely blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. He who calls you is trustworthy, and he will in fact do this.
 Romans 2:4 (NET)