The next form of ἁγιάζω I’ll consider is found in Jesus’ prayer to his Father: Set them apart (ἁγίασον, a form of ἁγιάζω) in the truth; your word is truth. But I plan to crawl through his prayer on my knees because I believe I can know his holiness here.
I have revealed your name, Jesus prayed, to the men you gave me out of the world. Though the Greek word translated men is masculine, I’m not convinced that justifies (note 15) translating ἀνθρώποις (a form of ἄνθρωπος) men in the 21st century. John didn’t use ἄρσενες (a form of ἄῤῥην) for instance, as Paul did when his intent was to distinguish male from human. But from the beginning of creation, Jesus said, he made them male (ἄρσεν, another form of ἄῤῥην) and female. And God made humankind (ἄνθρωπον, another form of ἄνθρωπος); according to divine image he made it; male (ἄρσεν, another form of ἄῤῥην) and female he made them.
Also the Greek word translated I have revealed was not a form of ἀποκαλύπτω but Ἐφανέρωσα (a form of φανερόω). So I think Jesus meant something more than calling God πάτερ, even something more than the mere fact that yehôvâh has a Father. Jesus revealed (ἐφανέρωσεν, another form of φανερόω) his glory by turning water to wine (John 2:1-11). He revealed (ἐφανέρωσεν, another form of φανερόω) himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias after he was raised from the dead by telling them where to cast their net to catch fish and by having a charcoal fire ready to prepare their breakfast (John 21:1-14). Jesus had revealed his Father’s name by demonstrating who the Father is by his own relationship to Him (John 14:8-10 NET).
Philip said, “Lord, show (δεῖξον, a form of δεικνύω) us the Father, and we will be content.” Jesus replied, “Have I been with you for so long, and you have not known me, Philip? The person who has seen me has seen the Father! How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you, I do not speak on my own initiative, but the Father residing in me performs his miraculous deeds.
At that time Jesus went through the grain fields on a Sabbath. His disciples were hungry, and they began to pick heads of wheat  as they made their way, rubbed them in their hands, and ate them. We may misunderstand this story because we live in a different world. Most seed farmers sow today is dead, purchased from agribusinesses. It will not grow a crop that produces viable seed. We think it is wrong to walk through a farmer’s field to eat without payment the crop he purchased and labored over.
The grain Jesus’ disciples ate was alive, fully able to grow another crop and produce another harvest. It was from God who provides seed for the sower and bread for food, from God who said to Moses: When you go into the ripe grain fields of your neighbor you may pluck off the kernels with your hand, but you must not use a sickle on your neighbor’s ripe grain. But when the Pharisees saw this they said to him, “Look, your disciples are doing what is against the law to do on the Sabbath.”
They weren’t wrong (Exodus 16:4, 5; 20:8-11 NET):
Then the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) said to Moses, “I am going to rain bread from heaven for you, and the people will go out and gather the amount for each day, so that I may test them. Will they walk in my law or not? On the sixth day they will prepare what they bring in, and it will be twice as much as they gather every other day.”
Remember the Sabbath day to set it apart as holy. For six days you may labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord (yehôvâh, ליהוה) your God; on it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, or your male servant, or your female servant, or your cattle, or the resident foreigner who is in your gates. For in six days the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) made the heavens and the earth and the sea and all that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart as holy.
But Jesus defended his disciples’ from the Pharisees accusation by citing hunger as a commonly known exception: “Have you never read what David did when he was in need and he and his companions were hungry – how he entered the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, took and ate the sacred bread, which is not lawful for any to eat but the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?”
His next argument might have been a bit more opaque to the Pharisees: Or have you not read in the law that the priests in the temple desecrate the Sabbath and yet are not guilty (ἀναίτιοι, a form of ἀναίτιος)? This becomes clearer with Peter’s teaching, one of the men to whom Jesus revealed his Father’s name (1 Peter 2:4-10 NET):
So as you come to [Jesus], a living stone rejected by men but chosen and priceless in God’s sight, you yourselves, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood and to offer spiritual sacrifices that are acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. For it says in scripture, “Look, I lay in Zion a stone, a chosen and priceless cornerstone, and whoever believes (πιστεύων, a form of πιστεύω) in him will never be put to shame.” So you who believe (πιστεύουσιν, another form of πιστεύω) see his value, but for those who do not believe (ἀπιστοῦσιν, a form of ἀπιστέω), the stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone, and a stumbling-stone and a rock to trip over. They stumble because they disobey (ἀπειθοῦντες, a form of ἀπειθέω; disbelieve) the word, as they were destined to do. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people of his own, so that you may proclaim (ἐξαγγείλητε, a form of ἐξαγγέλλω) the virtues of the one who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. You once were not a people, but now you are God’s people. You were shown no mercy, but now you have received mercy.
Isaiah prophesied yehôvâh’s description of my chosen people as the people whom I formed for myself, so they might praise (tehillâh, תהלתי; Septuagint: διηγεῖσθαι, a form of διηγέομαι) me. How we praise and proclaim Him is important. Are we filled with his own ἀρετὰς (a form of ἀρέτη; translated virtues), his love, his joy, his peace, his patience, his kindness, his goodness, his faithfulness, his gentleness and his self-control, or are we bitter and resentful as we grudgingly strive in our own strength to obey rules that others apparently ignore with impunity? Malachi prophesied (3:13-18 NET):
“You have criticized me sharply,” says the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה), “but you ask, ‘How have we criticized you?’ You have said, ‘It is useless to serve God. How have we been helped by keeping his requirements and going about like mourners before the Lord (yehôvih, יהוה) who rules over all? So now we consider the arrogant to be happy; indeed, those who practice evil are successful. In fact, those who challenge (bâchan, בחנו; Tanakh, tempt) God escape!’”
Then those who respected (yârêʼ, יראי) the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) spoke to one another, and the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) took notice. A scroll was prepared before him in which were recorded the names of those who respected (yârêʼ, ליראי) the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) and honored his name. “They will belong to me,” says the Lord (yehôvâh, יהוה) who rules over all, “in the day when I prepare my own special property. I will spare them as a man spares his son who serves him. Then once more you will see that I make a distinction between the righteous and the wicked, between the one who serves God and the one who does not.”
I tell you that something greater than the temple is here, Jesus continued. I turn here to Hebrews, not as the thoughts of some anonymous disciple but, as the teaching that was foremost in Jesus’ mind between his resurrection and ascension (Hebrews 12:18-24 NET):
For you have not come to something that can be touched, to a burning fire and darkness and gloom and a whirlwind and the blast of a trumpet and a voice uttering words such that those who heard begged to hear no more. For they could not bear what was commanded: “If even an animal touches the mountain, it must be stoned.” In fact, the scene was so terrifying that Moses said, “I shudder with fear.” But you have come to Mount Zion, the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to myriads of angels, to the assembly and congregation of the firstborn, who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous, who have been made perfect, and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks of something better than Abel’s does.
If you had known what this means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice,’ you would not have condemned the innocent (ἀναιτίους, another form of ἀναίτιος), Jesus continued. Then he said to them, “The Sabbath was made for people, not people for the Sabbath. For this reason the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath.” It was not wrong to capitalize Son of Man, for Jesus certainly meant Himself, but clearly not Himself exclusively.
If I pay attention, He has given me a beautiful contrast between how the disobedient and unbelieving picture God and judge others according to their own image, and how the obedient and believing see Him. Actually everything Jesus said and did confronting the Pharisees and teachers of the law offers this contrast and reveals his Father’s name, but I’ll consider only one other slightly different example in this essay:
Matthew 15:21-28 (NET)
Mark 7:24-30 (NET)
|After going out from there, Jesus went to the region of Tyre and Sidon.
|After Jesus left there, he went to the region of Tyre.
|A Canaanite woman from that area came and cried out, “Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David! My daughter is horribly demon-possessed (δαιμονίζεται, a form of δαιμονίζομαι)!” But he did not answer her a word. Then his disciples came and begged him, “Send her away, because she keeps on crying out after us.” So he answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”
|When he went into a house, he did not want anyone to know, but he was not able to escape notice.
|But she came and bowed down before him…
|Instead, a woman whose young daughter had an unclean (ἀκάθαρτον, a form of ἀκάθαρτος) spirit (πνεῦμα) immediately heard about him and came and fell at his feet.
|The woman was a Greek, of Syrophoenician origin.
|…and said, “Lord, help me!”
|She asked him to cast the demon (δαιμόνιον) out of her daughter.
|He said to her, “Let the children be satisfied first, for…
|“It is not right (καλὸν, a form of καλός) to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs,” he said.
|…it is not right to take the children’s bread and to throw it to the dogs.”
|“Yes, Lord,” she replied, “but even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters’ table.”
|She answered, “Yes, Lord, but even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs.”
|Then Jesus answered her, “Woman, your faith is great! Let what you want be done for you.”
|Then he said to her, “Because you said this, you may go. The demon (δαιμόνιον) has left your daughter.”
|And her daughter was healed from that hour.
|She went home and found the child lying on the bed, and the demon (δαιμόνιον) gone.
It is too easy to miss Jesus’ demonstration of his Father here. When I obsess about what He called the woman I miss that He said, Woman, your faith is great, and honored her request when she accepted his description of her as a dog. Mark described her socially and genealogically as Greek, of Syrophoenician origin. Matthew described her lost soul as a Canaanite (1 Corinthians 10:19-22 NET).
Am I saying that idols or food sacrificed to them amount to anything? No, I mean that what the pagans sacrifice is to demons (δαιμονίοις, a form of δαιμόνιον) and not to God. I do not want you to be partners with demons (δαιμονίων, another form of δαιμόνιον). You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons (δαιμονίων, another form of δαιμόνιον). You cannot take part in the table of the Lord and the table of demons (δαιμονίων, another form of δαιμόνιον). Or are we trying to provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we really stronger than he is?
The word translated pagans (εθνη, a form of ἔθνος) doesn’t occur in the parallel Greek of the NET online. It is found however in the Stephanus Textus Receptus and the Byzantine Majority Text.
|1 Corinthians 10:20 NET Parallel Greek||1 Corinthians 10:20 Stephanus Textus Receptus|
|ἀλλ᾿ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν , δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ [θύουσιν]· οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι||αλλ οτι α θυει τα εθνη δαιμονιοις θυει και ου θεω ου θελω δε υμας κοινωνους των δαιμονιων γινεσθαι||αλλ οτι α θυει τα εθνη δαιμονιοις θυει και ου θεω ου θελω δε υμας κοινωνους των δαιμονιων γινεσθαι|
After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes, yehôvâh commanded Moses to Speak unto the children of Israel. Moses knew Israel would not obey yehôvâh’s statutes and prophesied in song (Deuteronomy 32:16, 17 Tanakh):
They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, with abominations (tôʽêbah, בתועבת; Septuagint: βδελύγμασιν, a form of βδέλυγμα) did they provoke Him. They sacrificed unto demons (shed, לשדים; Septuagint: δαιμονίοις, a form of δαιμόνιον), no-gods, gods that they knew not, new gods that came up of late, which your fathers dreaded not.
With this fresh in my mind I get a better picture of what was going on: Jesus came to town and a demon worshiper complained to Him that her daughter was demon-possessed. It’s a vivid picture of the iniquity of the mother (in this case) being visited upon her daughter, whether we regard that visitation as punishment from God or the expected result of consorting with demons. Jesus fully intended to ignore the Canaanite woman because He was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. It is how He understood his mission from his Father. It is what He taught his disciples (Matthew 10:5-8 NET):
Jesus sent out these twelve, instructing them as follows: “Do not go to Gentile (ἐθνῶν, another form of ἔθνος) regions and do not enter any Samaritan town. Go instead to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. As you go, preach this message: ‘The kingdom of heaven is near!’ Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, cast out demons. Freely you received, freely give.”
Could there be anything more cruel than casting out a demon from the daughter of a demon worshiper?
Matthew 12:43-45 (NET)
Luke 11:24-28 (NET)
|“When an unclean (ἀκάθαρτον, a form of ἀκάθαρτος) spirit (πνεῦμα) goes out of a person, it passes through waterless places looking for rest but does not find it.
|“When an unclean (ἀκάθαρτον, a form of ἀκάθαρτος) spirit (πνεῦμα) goes out of a person, it passes through waterless places looking for rest but not finding any.
|Then it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ When it returns, it finds the house empty, swept clean, and put in order.
|Then it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ When it returns, it finds the house swept clean and put in order.
Luke 11:24b, 25
|Then it goes and brings with it seven other spirits (πνεύματα, a form of πνεῦμα) more evil (πονηρότερα, a form of πονηρός) than itself, and they go in and live there, so the last state of that person is worse than the first.
|Then it goes and brings seven other spirits (πνεύματα, a form of πνεῦμα) more evil (πονηρότερα, a form of πονηρός) than itself, and they go in and live there, so the last state of that person is worse than the first.”
|It will be that way for this evil (πονηρᾷ, another form of πονηρός) generation as well!”
|As he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!”
|But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear (ἀκούοντες, a form of ἀκούω) the word of God and obey (φυλάσσοντες, a form of φυλάσσω) it!”
Jesus’ disciples couldn’t tolerate the woman’s loud persistence, so Jesus engaged her. Still she persisted. More to the point she accepted Jesus’ description of her as one of the dogs: She answered, “Yes, Lord, but even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs.” (The Pharisees by contrast wouldn’t even accept Jesus’ description of them as actors.) And so Jesus, contrary to his own understanding of his mission from the Father and his own teaching to his own disciples, healed the woman’s daughter because of this woman’s one simple act of faith, believing his description of her as a dog. Perhaps that faith would lead to more faith in more things Jesus taught and turn this Canaanite woman and her daughter from their faith in demons.
This all reminds me of yehôvâh’s repentance: And the LORD (yehôvâh, יהוה) repented (nâcham, וינחם; Septuagint: ἱλάσθη, a form of ἱλάσκομαι) of the evil which he thought to do unto his people. How can yehôvâh/Jesus repent of his own covenant, his own understanding or his own teaching, except by submitting his own will to that of his Father? Who is his Father?
God is love, wrote another of the men to whom Jesus revealed his Father’s name. Not, Love is god. This isn’t pagan worship of an idea or ideals achieved by human desire or exertion. It is rather a shorthand for the name of the Father Jesus revealed to his disciples by his every word and deed. Paul’s definition of love is the way He, in fact, loves and fills believers with Himself (1 Corinthians 13:1-8a NET):
If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but I do not have God, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. And if I have prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith so that I can remove mountains, but do not have God, I am nothing. If I give away everything I own, and if I give over my body in order to boast, but do not have God, I receive no benefit.
God is patient, God is kind, He is not envious. God does not brag, He is not puffed up. He is not rude, He is not self-serving, He is not easily angered or resentful. He is not glad about injustice, but rejoices in the truth. He bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. God never ends.
And Jesus said (Matthew 7:21-23; John 3:7; Matthew 12:33a NET):
Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter into the kingdom of heaven – only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven. On that day, many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, and in your name cast out demons and do many powerful deeds?’ Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Go away from me, you lawbreakers!’
Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must all be born from above.’
Make a tree good and its fruit will be good…
For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God, Paul wrote believers in Rome. The Gospel harmony I created to write this essay follows.
Matthew 12:1-8 (NET)
|Mark 2:23-28 (NET)||
Luke 6:1-5 (NET)
|At that time Jesus went through the grain fields on a Sabbath.
Ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ ἐπορεύθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς σάββασιν διὰ τῶν σπορίμων
|Jesus was going through the grain fields on a Sabbath…
Καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν |παραπορεύεσθαι| διὰ τῶν σπορίμων
|Jesus was going through the grain fields on a Sabbath…
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίμων
|His disciples were hungry…
οἱ δὲ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἐπείνασαν
|…and they began to pick heads of wheat…
καὶ ἤρξαντο τίλλειν στάχυας
|…and his disciples began to pick some heads of wheat…
καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο … τίλλοντες τοὺς στάχυας
|…and his disciples picked some heads of wheat…
καὶ ἔτιλλον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ … τοὺς στάχυας
|as they made their way.
|…rubbed them in their hands…
ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν
|…and eat them.
|…and ate them.
καὶ ἤσθιον …
|But when the Pharisees saw this…
οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἰδόντες
|…they said to him, “Look, your disciples are doing what is against the law to do on the Sabbath.” He said to them, “Haven’t you read what David did…
εἶπαν αὐτῷ· ἰδοὺ οἱ μαθηταί σου ποιοῦσιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν ποιεῖν ἐν σαββάτῳ. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν Δαυὶδ
Matthew 12:2b, 3a
|So the Pharisees said to him, “Look, why are they doing what is against the law on the Sabbath?” He said to them, “Have you never read what David did…
καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ· ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν; καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν Δαυὶδ
Mark 2:24, 25a
|But some of the Pharisees said, “Why are you doing what is against the law on the Sabbath?” Jesus answered them, “Haven’t you read what David did…
τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων εἶπαν· τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν; καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν |ὁ| Ἰησοῦς· οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυὶδ
Luke 6:2, 3a
|…when he was in need…
ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν
|…when he and his companions were hungry – how he entered the house of God…
ὅτε ἐπείνασεν καὶ οἱ μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ, πῶς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ
Matthew 12:3b, 4a
|…and he and his companions were hungry – how he entered the house of God…
καὶ ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ, |πῶς| εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ
Mark 2:25c, 26a
|…when he and his companions were hungry – how he entered the house of God…
ὅτε ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ [ὄντες], [ὡς] εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ
Luke 6:3b, 4a
|…when Abiathar was high priest…
ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθὰρ ἀρχιερέως
|…and they ate the sacred bread, which was against the law…
καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγον, ὃ οὐκ ἐξὸν ἦν
|…and ate the sacred bread, which is against the law…
καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγεν, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν
|…and ate the sacred bread, which is not lawful…
καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως … ἔφαγεν … οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν
|…for him or his companions to eat…
αὐτῷ φαγεῖν οὐδὲ τοῖς μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ
|…but only for the priests?
εἰ μὴ τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν μόνοις
|…for any but the priests to eat…
φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἱερεῖς
|…for any to eat but the priests alone…
… φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς
|…and also gave it to his companions?”
καὶ ἔδωκεν καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν
|…and gave it to his companions?”
καὶ ἔδωκεν τοῖς μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ
|Or have you not read in the law that the priests in the temple desecrate the Sabbath and yet are not guilty? I tell you that something greater than the temple is here. If you had known what this means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice,’ you would not have condemned the innocent.
ἢ οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ὅτι τοῖς σάββασιν οἱ ἱερεῖς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τὸ σάββατον βεβηλοῦσιν καὶ ἀναίτιοι εἰσιν; λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ὅτι τοῦ ἱεροῦ μεῖζον ἐστιν ὧδε. εἰ δὲ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν· ἔλεος θέλω καὶ οὐ θυσίαν, οὐκ ἂν κατεδικάσατε τοὺς ἀναιτίους
|Then he said to them…
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς
|Then he said to them…
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς
|“The Sabbath was made for people, not people for the Sabbath. For this reason…
τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον· ὥστε
Mark 2:27b, 28a
|For the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.”
κύριος γάρ ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
|…the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath.”
κύριος ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου.
|“The Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.”
κύριος ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
 A form of θύω
 θυει another form of θύω